FOREWORD الحمد لله رب العالمين والصلوة والسلام على رأس الصالحين وعلى آله وأصحابه الطاهرين. أما بعد!
Al-hamdulillāh, I am feeling most happy and pleased at being afforded the opportunity of presenting the third volume of Aqwāl-e-Salaf. It contains the lofty conditions and beneficial statements of the ‛ulamā’ and sulahā’ of the fifth century until the first half of the eighth century of the hijrah. May Allāh ta‛ālā accept it through His grace, and make it beneficial for the ummah as He did for the original of this book. Āmīn. As was done previously, we tried to add the year of birth and death of each personality, and provided some explanatory notes here and there. We intend doing the same for the future volumes as well. Māshā Allāh, we added the biographies of many more personalities, and – inshā Allāh – we will do the same in the remaining volumes. Inshā Allāh, this series will end with the eighth volume, and we hope to have each volume comprising of about 600 pages. May Allāh ta‛ālā enable us to complete it through His grace. Āmīn. By Allāh’s grace, the following person’s strove very hard in assisting me in compiling this volume: Maulwī Kamāl Ahmad Sāhib, Maulwī Sābir ‛Alī Sāhib, and Maulwī Fīroz ‛Ālam Sāhib.
But the real contribution was made by Maulānā Maqsūd Ahmad Sāhib Gaurakpūrī for working tirelessly in adding the dates of birth and death, and in arranging the book in a suitable and academic manner. Qārī Nāzir Husayn Sāhib, a teacher at Falāh Dārayn Tadkeshwar (Gujarat) proof read the book. May Allāh ta‛ālā reward him with the best of rewards. I suffice with this short introduction in this volume. Inshā Allāh, I hope to add a few more essential points in the next volume. At present, it is my heartfelt desire to quote the words of ‛Allāmah Ibn al-Jauzī rahimahullāh on the merits and academic and practical achievements of the auliyā’ and sulahā’. I had done this in my introduction to the first volume, and may Allāh ta‛ālā make the present quotation beneficial as well. Āmīn. Muhammad Qamaruz Zamān Allāhābādī The merits of the auliyā’ and sulahā’ The auliyā’ and sulahā’ are the real objects of this universe, and it is they who, after acquiring knowledge, practise on its essence. Hadrat Abū Hurayrah radiyallāhu ‛anhu narrates that Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‛alayhi wa sallam said: “Allāh ta‛ālā says: ‘I declare war against anyone who is antagonistic towards My walī (close friend). My servant does not gain proximity to Me
with anything better than a compulsory act. My servant continues coming closer to Me through optional actions until I begin to love him. Once I love him, I become his ears with which he hears, his eyes with which he sees, his hands with which he holds, and his legs with which he walks. If he asks Me, I will certainly give him. If he seeks refuge in Me, I will certainly give him refuge. I do not hesitate in doing anything as much as I hesitate in taking the soul of a believer when he dislikes death, and I do not like to discomfort him.”1 Hadrat Anas ibn Mālik radiyallāhu ‛anhu narrates from Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‛alayhi wa sallam who narrates from Jibra’īl ‛alayhis salām who narrates from Allāh ta‛ālā who said: “I declare war against anyone who insults My walī. I do not hesitate in doing anything as much as I hesitate in taking the soul of a believer because I do not like to cause him any pain, but there is no way out of it as well. A believer likes to do a certain type of worship but I stop him from doing it so that selfconceit does not get into him, resulting in his destruction. My servant does not gain proximity to Me with anything better than a compulsory act. My servant continues coming closer to Me through optional actions until I begin to love him. Once I love him, I become his ears, eyes, hands, and his helper. When he calls out to Me, I reply to 1 Bukhārī Sharīf, Bāb at-Tawādu‛, p. 963.
him. When he asks Me, I give him. When he is devoted to me, I treat him with affection. Some of My servants can only remain upright through poverty. If I were to give them affluence, it would destroy them. Some of My servants can only remain upright through affluence. If I were to make them poor, it would destroy them. The īmān of some of my servants can only remain upright through illness. If I were to give them good health, it will destroy them. Since I know the conditions of the hearts of My servants, I treat them accordingly. I am certainly all-knowing, allaware.” ‛Abd al-Karīm Jazarī narrates a shorter version of the above Hadīth from Hadrat Anas radiyallāhu ‛anhu. It contains the words: “I am most hasty in helping My servants. And I become more angry than an angry lion for their sake.” Hadrat Anas radiyallāhu ‛anhu narrates that Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‛alayhi wa sallam said: “There are some servants of Allāh ta‛ālā who, if they take an oath in Allāh’s name, He will certainly fulfil it for them.” (Bukhārī, Muslim, Abū Dā’ūd, Nasa’ī, Ibn Mājah, Ahmad) ‛Atā’ ibn Yasār narrates that Mūsā ‛alayhis salām said: “O Allāh! Who are Your people to whom You will give a place in the shade of Your Throne?” Allāh ta‛ālā replied: “They are the one’s whose hands committed no sin, whose hearts are pure, and who have love for each other because of My greatness. They are people who are remembered
when I am remembered. And when they are remembered, I am also remembered. And I make mention of them. They are the one’s who perform a complete wudū’ (ablution) despite difficulties (such as cold water on a cold day). They return to My remembrance just as a vulture returns to its nest. They are completely enamoured by love for Me like a child is for people. When My prohibitions are considered lawful, they become angry like leopards at the time of war.” Wahb ibn Munabbih narrates that when Allāh ta‛ālā sent Hadrat Mūsā and his brother, Hadrat Hārūn ‛alayhis salām, to Pharaoh, He said to them: “Do not be astonished by his wealth and possessions, do not raise your eyes towards them because these are mere attractions and comforts of this world. Had I willed, I could have certainly given you the attractions of this world to the extent that Pharaoh would have been convinced that he is powerless against what you have been given. But I am not giving it to you, and turning it away from you. This is how I always deal with My auliyā’ (true friends). I have set aside good for them from before hand. I turn them away from the bounties and comforts of this world just as an affectionate shepherd turns away his flock from fields which could cause their destruction. I save them from the affluence and luxuries of this world just as an affectionate camel-herd keeps his camels away from dirty places. This is not because I consider them to be of lesser value. Rather, I do this so that they may remain pure and protected, and receive the full share of My
bestowals. The world must not be able to harm them in any way, nor must the desires of their self commit any wrong against them.” “A servant cannot be embellished with a quality better than abstinence in this world. This is because it is an embellishment of the muttaqīn (pious). They have the garment of piety with which they are recognized, viz. tranquillity, humility, and the marks of prostration on their faces. These are My true auliyā.’ When you meet them, you must be humble before them, and your heart and tongue must be subservient to them. Beware! Anyone who insults them or terrorizes them has actually declared war against Me, opposed Me, brought himself before Me, and called Me towards himself. And I rush to help My auliyā’. Does the person who declares war against Me think he can face Me? Does the person who has enmity towards Me think he can defeat Me? Does the person who opposes Me think he can escape Me or slip pass Me? How can this be possible when I personally exact revenge on behalf of My auliyā’ in this world and in the Hereafter!? I do not delegate the task of helping them [My auliyā’] to anyone else.” Wahb ibn Munabbih rahimahullāh narrates: The Hawārīyyīn (disciples) said: “O ‛Īsā! Who are the auliyā’ of Allāh who neither have anything to fear nor will they grieve?” Hadrat ‛Īsā ‛alayhis salām replied: “They are the ones who look at the inner part of this world while people look at its outer part. They looked at the end result of this world
while people looked at its immediate benefits. They then cast aside the part which they feared would destroy them, and left the part which they felt would leave them. What they considered to be a lot turned out to be little. And what they safeguarded slipped away from them. What they accumulated and rejoiced over resulted in their grief and regret. They abandoned what they acquired of this world, and abased what was unduly elevated. When the world becomes old to them, they do not renew it. When it becomes deserted to them, they do not inhabit it. When it dies in their hearts, they do not revive it. They destroy the world and construct their Hereafter. They sell the world and purchase something which is eternal [the Hereafter]. They cast it aside and are happy in doing this. They have sold it and made a lot of profit by its sale. They looked at the people of the world and saw them hankering after it, and are prey to various calamities and worries. So they revived the remembrance of death, and killed the remembrance of life. They love Allāh ta‛ālā and love His remembrance. They acquire light from His effulgence. They are in a unique situation, and the knowledge which they possess is also unique. The Book is with them, and they uphold its injunctions. The Book speaks highly of them, and they speak in the light of what it teaches. Knowledge of the Book is obtained from them, and they are its true scholars. They consider whatever they acquired to be sufficient, and do not consider anything else worthy of acquisition. They do not hope for any
peace from anyone apart from the Being in whom they placed their hopes. They do not fear anything apart from the Being whom they fear. (Ahmad) Hadrat Ka‛b radiyallāhu ‛anhu said: “After Nūh ‛alayhis salām, there will always be fourteen people in this world through whom the punishment will be removed.” (Ahmad) Sufyān ibn ‛Uyaynah rahimahullāh said: عِنْدَ ذِكْرِ الصَّالحِِيْنَ تَنْزِلُ الرَّحمَْةُ Mercy descends at the time when the righteous are mentioned. Muhammad ibn Yūnus rahimahullāh said: “I have not come across anything more beneficial than speaking about the righteous.”1 Note: Look at ‛Allāmah Ibn Jauzī rahimahullāh! Although he is generally considered to be a “dry” person, he is speaking about the qualities and merits of the auliyā’, and the importance of speaking about them. These words ought to be written in gold. It will be most astonishing if we still do not accept their merits. It gives me great pleasure to convey the praises and acceptance of this series, Aqwāl-e-Salaf, by 1 Sifatus Safwah, vol. 1, p.. 39-44.
the ‛ulamā’ and the mashā’ikh. They expressed their approval both verbally and in writing. Some of their evaluations were quoted in volumes one and two. A few more are quoted here, and others will be quoted in the forthcoming volumes. All inspiration is from Allāh ta‛ālā alone. Muhammad Qamaruz Zamān Allāhābādī 15 Dhul Hijjah 1432 A.H. 12 November 2011 Madrasah ‛Arabīyyah Bayt al-Ma‛ārif Bakhshī Bāzār, Ilāhābād, U.P.