UPON WHOM IS QURBANI COMPULSARY?
#…..Qurbaani is compulsory upon every understanding, mature, resident Muslim male and female who owns nisaab or owns extra items (over and above their need) which equals the nisaab amount, i.e. they own an amount that equals the gold and silver nisaab amount, or they possess homes or properties besides the one they live in or they have extra household items that equal the nisaab amount or they have trading stock, shares etc. Then one share of Qurbaani is necessary for them to do.
#…..It is not a condition for a year to pass over the nisaab amount or the items that are over and above ones needs. It is also not a condition for the goods to be trading stock. If a person becomes the owner of it before sunset of the 12th of Dhul Hijjah, then Qurbaani is compulsory upon him/her.
#…..From the three days of Qurbaani, if a person becomes the owner of nisaab even on the last day, or he becomes the owner of goods that are over and above his needs, then Qurbaani becomes compulsory upon him.
#…..If a person has a home other than the one he lives in, whether it is for trade or not, or he has a flat besides the one he lives in, he has a vehicle other than what he needs, then this person is a saahib-e-nisaab with regards to Qurbaani. Qurbaani is compulsory upon him.
#…..If a person possesses trading stock – of any kind – that equals the nisaab amount, then Qurbaani becomes compulsory upon him.
QURBAANI IS WAAJIB (COMPULSARY)
Rasulullaah (SAW) stayed in Madinah Munawwarah for ten years after Hijrah. He performed Qurbaani every year with punctuality.
From this we learn that Qurbaani was not specific to Makkah Mu’azzamah, but it is compulsory upon the resident of every city that has the ability. Rasulullaah (SAW) used to emphasize it. It is for this reason that majority of the scholars say that it is waajib (compulsory).
#….. Adha means Qurbaani. Youm-ul-Adha means the Day of Qurbaani.
#….. By a small animal is meant a ram or ewe of a sheep or goat.
THE PERSON PASSES AWAY AFTER PURCHASING A QURBAANI ANIMAL
#….. If a person who is a Sahib-e-Nisaab (one upon whom Zakaat is obligatory) purchases an animal for Qurbaani and passes away during the days of Qurbaani, the animal will then form part of the estate of the deceased and all the heirs will have a due share in the animal in keeping with the Shariah. The heirs now have a choice either to sacrifice this animal as Qurbaani and thereby allow it to be a form of Esaal-E-Thawaab or they can share it in keeping with the division of the estate.
It should be noted that in the case of the heirs opting to sacrifice it for the sake of Esaal-e-Thawaab for the deceased, it is conditional for the heirs to all be matured. The permission of immature heirs is not reliable.
ONE IS UNABLE TO MAKE QURBAANI AFTER PURCHASING THE ANIMAL
#….. Qurbaani was Waajib on a person but all three days of Qurbaani pass without the person sacrificing an animal. He will then have to give in charity the value of a sheep or goat. If he had already purchased an animal for Qurbaani but was unable to slaughter for some reason, this living animal must be given away in Sadaqah. It the person sacrificed the animal after the days of Qurbaani had already passed due to ignorance of the rules, he will now have to distribute all the meat to the poor. Such meat cannot be given to a wealthy person.
If the animal is destroyed and the person is unable to make Qurbaani and such a person is wealthy, it will be Waajib for him to give the value of the animal in Sadaqah.