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Kitabul Imaan - Chapter 1 - 8 (Hadith 7 - 14)

 
Chapter No.: 
 3

كتاب الإيمان

Kitabul Imân

باب الإيمان وقول النبي بني الإسلام على خمس وهو قول وفعل ويزيد وينقص قال الله تعالى (ليزدادوا إيمانا مع إيمانهم) (وزدناهم هدى) (ويزيد الله الذي اهتدوا هدى) (والذين اهتدوا زادهم هدى وآتاهم تقواهم) (ويزداد الذين آمنوا إيمانا) وقوله (أيكم زادته هذه إيمانا فأما الذين آمنوا فزادتهم إيمانا) وقوله جل ذكره (فاخشوهم فزادهم إيمانا) وقوله تعالى (وما زادهم إلا إيمانا وتسليما) والحب في الله والبغض في الله من الإيمان وكتب عمر بن العزيز إلى عدي بن عدي إن للإيمان فراض وشرائع وحدودا وسننا فمن استكملها استكمل الإيمان ومن لم يستكملها لم يستكمل الإيمان فإن أعش فسأبينها لكم حتى تعملوا بها وإن أمت فما أنا على صحبتكم بحريص وقال إبراهيم عليه السلام (ولكن ليطمئن قلبي) وقال معاذ اجلس بنا نؤمن ساعة وقال ابن مسعود اليقين الإيمان كله قال ابن عمر لا يبلغ العبد حقيقة التقوى حتى يدع ما حاك في الصدر وقال مجاهد (شرع لكم من الدين ما وصى به نوح) أوصيناك يا محمد وإياه دينا واحدا وقال ابن عباس (شرعة ومنهاجا) سبيلا وسنة

Title of the chapter (ترجمة الباب)

Chapter (Bâb) 1: The statement of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) that Islâm is based on five things and it is both a saying and an action. It increases and decreases. Allâh says: That they may add faith to their faith (48:4) And Allâh doth increase in guidance those who seek guidance(19:76) But to those who receive guidance, He increases their guidance and bestows on them their piety and restraint (from evil) (47:17) And the believers may in their faith (74:31) which of you has had his faith increased by it, yea, those who believe their faith is increased (9:124) And it only added to their faith and their zeal in obedience(33:22). And the love and hate for Allâh's sake is a part of Faith; and Hadhrat Umar bin Abdul Aziz wrote to Hadhrat Adi bin Adi, faith includes Faraidh (duties), Sharai'ah (laws), Hudood (Allâh's boundary limits between lawful and unlawful things) and Sunah (i.e, Prophets (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) way of living and traditions) and whoever follows all of them has complete faith and whoever does not follow them completely (does not act on them), his faith is incomplete and should I live I will tell you all about them and should I die, I am not anxious to have your company and Hadhrat Ibrahim (AS) said: Yea; but to satisfy my own heart (2:260) And Hadhrat Mu'âdh bin Jabal (RA) said, "Let us sit for a while so that we may dedicate that period to Imân" and Hadrat Abdullah bin Mas'ood (RA) said that whole of Yaqeen (conviction) is Imân and Hadhrat Abdullah bin Umar (RA) said that A person will not reach true sense of piety unless and until he removes all suspicious things from his heart. Mujâhid says, while commenting on following verse of the Qur'an: "Oh, Muhammad, We had given you and Nuh the same testament." Hadhrat Ibn Abbas (RA) said that in the Aayat Shir'a means the Islâmic way and Minhaj means the Sunnah and traditions of Holy Prophet (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam)".

Purpose of the Tarjamtual bâb

Imâm Bukhari is of the opinion that the Imân is the name of sayings and action (قول و فعل). As per him the deeds or actions are also part of Imân, hence it increases and decreases as the deeds can be more or less and also good or bad. He has tried to prove his point strongly by quoting various verses of the Qur'an, Hadith and also the comments of Sahâbah al Kirâm. Tâba'een and others as mentioned above. By selecting the first Hadith, which says that Islâm is based on five things, for this chapter he wants to stress again on the same point that the deeds are part of the Imân and that Imân increases and decreases as different people will have different quantity and quality of deeds.

باب - دعاؤكم إيمانكم لقوله تعالى (قُلْ مَا يَعْبَأُ بِكُمْ رَبِّي لَوْلَا دُعَاؤُكُمْ

Chapter (Bâb) 2: Your invocation is your faith (invocation means belief). Allâh's saying: Say (to the rejecters) My Lord is not un easy because of you if ye call Him or not (25:77)

Hadith No. 7

حدثنا عبيد الله بن موسى قال أخبرنا حنظلة بن أبي سفيان عن عكرمة بن خالد عن ابن عمر رضي الله عنهما قال قال رسول الله بني الإسلام على خمس شهادة أن لا إله إلا الله وأن محمدا رسول الله وإقام الصلاة وإيتاء الزكاة والحج وصوم رمضان

Narrated by Hadhrat ibn Umar (RA)

Allâh's Apostle (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) said: Islâm is based on (the following) five (principles):

To testify that none is worthy of worship but Allâh and Muhammad is Allâh's apostle.

To offer the (compulsory congregational) prayers dutifully and perfectly.

To pay Zakâh (i.e. obligatory charity).

To perform Hajj (i.e. Pilgrimage to Mecca).

To observe fast during the month of Ramadhan.

Narrator-Hadhrat Ibn Umar (RA)

Hadhrat Ibn Umar (RA) is the son of Hadhrat Umar bin Khattab (RA) and the brother of Ummul Mumineen Hadhrat Hafsa (RA). He embraced Islâm along with his father at a very young age and migrated to Madinah (Hijrah) with his father. He could not participate in the battles of Badr and Uhad because of young age but participated in all later Gazwas. He earned martyrdom in 73 Hijrah. May Allâh be pleased with him and elevate his rank.

Comments

In this Hadith example of Islâm has been given like that of a tent which is erected on a central pillar and four corner pillars. Shahâdah is the central pillar of the building or tent of Islâm and Salâh, Zakâh, Saum and Hajj are the four corner pillars. If the four corner pillars of the tent will fall, it will still remains standing, but if the central pillar falls then it will come down. Similarly, so far as Shahâdah is there in ones heart, he will remain Mumin even if he is weak in Salâh, Zakâh, Saum or Haj, The reverse will not be true. Second reason for comparing Islâm with the tent is that so far as one remains in a fortified tent, one is safe from enemies. Similarly, one who stays in the tent of Islâm, he is safe both from internal enemy like Shatan and external enemies as well.

Ibadah (Worship) is of two kinds

Do's: Those things which Shari'ah wants us to do.

Don'ts: Those things which Shari'ah does not want us to do.

Do's can be either lingual deeds (قولي) or practical deeds (فعلي), and the don'ts can be either bodily or financial deeds.

Saum (Fasting) belongs to "Don'ts", as in this type of worship one is told not to do certain things like eating, drinking etc. Rest four types belong to "Do's".

By reciting Shahadah, one accepts the Oneness and Supremacy of Allâh Ta'âlâ and the prophethood of Rasulullah (AS) as the last divine guidance for the mankind. Having realised ones own dependence on his Creator and Cherisher i.e., Allâh Ta'âlâ, one bows before Him in Salâh in such a way that one feels His nearness. With this one gets the feeling that whatever he has, belongs to Allâh Ta'âlâ, so he uses his wealth also for getting the pleasure of Allâh Ta'âlâ, and one form of that is paying of Zakâh. Having started to taste the nearness of Allâh, one realises that one has to cleanse his inner self in order to get perfection in the spiritual progress, so he abstains from all sinful things and even curtails Halâl things for sometime, in the form of Saum (fasting). This purifies ones inner self and takes him to the heights of spirituality. Now he becomes eager to go to the centre of spiritual blessings i.e., Haj. Only those, who go there with pure and sincere inner self, know what one gets while performing Haj. This is the reason as to why these five things are labelled as the base of Islâm These five things include almost all types of Ibadah, may it be by tongue, bodily parts, heart and soul or charity.

Salâh and Zakâh depict the Jalâl and Supremacy of power of Allâh as the bondsman bows before Him and spends his earnings as per His commands. Saum and Hajj depict the Jamâl of Allâh, and in its (i.e, Jamâl) love the bondsman goes in ecstasy, forgets his food (while fasting) and his homeland (while Haj).

Imân-What is Imân?

Imân means to believe, to accept. It is derived from the Arabic word ‘Aman' which means peace. Mumin (one who believes) gives peace to the believed (i.e., by believing in Allâh and His Messenger (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) from refuting and falsifying and the Mumin or believer also gives peace to other creatures, in other words Mumin is full of peace.

In Shari'ah, Imân means to believe in totality all that what was presented by Prophet Muhammad (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) and Kufr (infidelity) is opposite of Imân which means to deny any of the things presented by Prophet Muhammad (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam). True Imân is believing the truthfulness of Prophet Muhammad (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) in totality i.e., believing him as a true Prophet hundred percent, whereas one becomes Kâfir if he denies Prophet Muhammad (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) even partly. It is a matter of great concern for those Muslims who believe in Shari'ah but try to modify or change some of its laws which they are unable to understand. They should know that by doing so they no longer remain Muslims even if they believe in majority of laws of Shari'ah.

Imâm Râzi (RA) says, if someone neither believes nor disbelieves Prophet Muhammad (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) he also is a Kâfir. Shah Abdul Aziz Delhvi says, Imân means to believe Qur'ân and Sunnah and to interpret it in the same way as Qur'ân and Sunnah interprets it. For example, if someone believes in Jannah and Jahannam but misinterprets it by saying that Jannah means happiness and Jahannam means misery, he also is a Kâfir as it amounts to refusal of the interpretation of Qur'ân and Sunnah.

Hadhrat Allâmah Anwar Shah Kashmiri says that Imân means to believe Prophet Muhammad (Sallallâhu Alaih Wasallam) with complete trust upon him. If someone says that he will accept only that law of Shari'ah, which is logical to his mind, he is not a Muslim. Actually Imân means to believe Prophet Muhammad (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) as the last true Messenger of Allâh (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam). So, whatever he (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) says is true whether one's mind understands it or not. As per Sheikh Abdul Qâdir Jeelâni (RA) and Shah Walli-Ullah Delhvi (RA), Imân has an external appearance (Surat) and also an essence (Haqeeqat). To say with tongue, to believe with heart and to act with bodily parts is its external appearance or ‘Surat'.

Haqeeqat of Imân

To make the (baser self) ‘Nafs' completely subordinate, obedient to Shari'ah so that it likes the same thing what Shari'ah has commanded as Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) says in a Hadith:

لا يؤمن أحدكم حتى يكون هواه نفس لما جئت به

"No one amongst you can be a believer (Mumin) unless and until he makes his baser self subservient to what I have come with"

When one achieves this status of Imân, it is said that he tastes the Haqeeqat of Imân. His nafs achieves the status of Nafs-i-Mutmainnah. Such a Nafs gets solace in Shari'ah only. For him the laws of Shari'ah become like water for fish. When Nafs is at a lower level it is called Nafs-i-Ammarah, such a Nafs feels uncomfortable with the laws of Shari'ah and feels solace in sins i.e., breaking the laws of Shari'ah. This is why Sahâbah al-Kirâm felt a minor sins weight as if of a huge mountain whereas we people do sins as huge as mountains but still we don't even feel its weight equal to a small piece of cotton. Our Nafs is at the stage of Nafs-i-Ammarah while as the Sahâbah had attained the status of Nafs-i-Mumainnah.

Imân of Mariyah Qabtia (RA)

Hadhrat Mariyah Qabtia (RA) was one of the wives of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam). Hadhrat Ibrahim was born to her who died at a very young age. One day Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) saw Mariyah gloomy and he asked her the reason behind it. She replied that she was gloomy as she didn't know whether her son was in Jannah or Jahannam after death. ‘Wahy' was revealed to Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) in which he was told that all those Muslim children who die at a young age go to Jannah. Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) told Mariyah that there was good news for her and that her son was in Jannah and further asked if she wanted to see her son in Jannah. It is this reply of Mariyah which I want to convey by narrating this incident here. She said, no, she does not want to see him. You can imagine that a mother who has lost her child at a very young age and then she is being told if she wants to see her son, that too in Jannah, how jubilant any mother would have been. But intelligent and vigilant Mariyah says that if she had said yes, she would have become Kâfir. Do you know why? When Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) informed her that her son was in Jannah, she straight away believed it as her Imân was of very high status. If she would have said ‘yes', after having been informed by Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) that her son was in Jannah, this would have indirectly meant that she did not completely believe Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) and wanted to confirm by seeing with her own eyes. She said instead, that her eyes may see what is wrong but statement of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) cannot be wrong. This is the degree of Imân that is required from a Mumin.

Complete faith on Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) is must for Imân

Hadhrat Abdullah bin Salâm (RA) was a great Jewish scholar before embracing Islâm. After embracing Islâm, one day he was sitting in the company of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) with other Sahâbah. In the meantime camel's milk was served to all those present there. Hadhrat Abdullah bin Salâm did not take the milk. Since camel's milk was Harâm in the Sahri'at of Hadhrat Musâ, he thought that though it is Halâl in Islâm but not necessary to take and if he won't do it, it would make no difference. At this very moment Allâh Ta'âlâ revealed the following verse of Qur'ân to Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam):

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا ادْخُلُوا فِي السِّلْمِ كَافَّةً

"O ye who believe! Enter into Islâm wholeheartedly" (2:208)

It clearly shows that any one who wants to have the fruits of Imân has to believe in it in totality. Piece-meal acceptance or selective acceptance will not serve the purpose.

Value of Imân

The value of the least possible part of Imân equal to just a speck, is Jannah. There is consensus amongst the Ulema that any person having the lowest degree of Imân will ultimately go to Jannah. He may remain in Jahannam for sometime but ultimately he will be taken out of Jahannam and allowed to enter Jannah. His entry into Jannah will be due to that speck of Imân which had been in his heart. So, it means that the value of lowest degree of Imân is Jannah and one cannot imagine the value of higher degrees of Imân.

To know is not Imân, to believe is Imân

Imân means to believe by heart in the truthfulness of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam). If anyone knows that Prophet Muhammad (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) is truly the last Messenger of Allâh but does not believe him, he is not a Mumin (believer). Abu Jahal, one of the worst enemies of Islâm, knew that Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) was the true Messenger of Allâh but he did not believe him, so, only knowing this didn't benefit him of Imân, he died as Kâfir.

Allâh Ta'als says in Qur'ân:

يَعْرِفُونَهُ كَمَا يَعْرِفُونَ أَبْنَاءَهُمْ

"These (non-beleivers) recognize him (i.e, Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam)) the way they recognize their children" (2:146)

Imân and Islâm

These two words are many times used as synonyms but are also used with separate meanings. Imân is a deed of Qalb-to have faith in Allâh and His Messenger (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) by heart is called Imân. The place of Imân is Qalb. To utter the same faith of heart by the tongue is a condition necessary for labelling a person in this world as a Mumin and for enacting Islâmic laws upon him as a Muslim. If someone utters the article of faith by his tongue and there is no Imân in his heart, he is not a Muslim but a Munâfiq who as per Qur'ân will be thrown into the deepest part of the Hell. If someone has faith in his heart but dies before uttering the words by tongue or is dumb, he is a Mumin by consensus. Uttering of article of faith by tongue helps in this world and faith in heart will help in Hereafter.

What is Islâm

When the Imân, which resides in Qalb, is expressed by different bodily deeds like Salâh, Saum, Zakâh etc, it is called Islâm. Islâm is related to different external bodily deeds whereas Imân is a hidden treasure of heart. If someone performs deeds as per Islâmic Shari'ah, he is called a Muslim, he may not be necessarily a Mumin in case Imân is not in his Qalb i.e., every Muslim is not a Mumin but every Mumin is a Muslim.

Allâh Ta'âlâ says in Qur'ân:

قَالَتِ الْأَعْرَابُ آمَنَّا قُلْ لَمْ تُؤْمِنُوا وَلَكِنْ قُولُوا أَسْلَمْنَا وَلَمَّا يَدْخُلِ الْإِيمَانُ فِي قُلُوبِكُمْ وَإِنْ تُطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ لَا يَلِتْكُمْ مِنْ أَعْمَالِكُمْ شَيْئًا إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ

The desert Arabs say "We believe." Say, Ye have no faith; but ye (only) say ‘We have submitted our wills to Allâh.' For not yet has Faith entered your hearts. But if ye obey Allâh and His Apostle He will not belittle aught of your deeds: for Allâh is Oft-Forgiving Most Merciful." (49:14)

There were some villagers who performed deeds like Muslims but did not have Imân in their hearts, they behaved as Muslims because they wanted to get worldly benefits from Muslims. They came to Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) claiming that they were Mumin. Allâh Ta'âlâ sent ‘Wahy' to Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) in which he (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) was told that these people were Muslims and not Mumin as Imân had not penetrated their hearts.

Constituents of Imân

In general Imân is said to have three constituents viz.,

Uttering article of faith by tongue.

Having faith in heart.

Performing good deeds.

Imân is primarily related to heart. There has always been a debate amongst the Ulema whether Aamal (deeds) form a part of Imân or not. There is a consensus amongst the Ulema of Ahli-Sunnat Wal Jamât that one who has Imân in heart and also commits sins, remains a Mumin. By committing sins, one becomes ‘fasiq' but not Kâfir. Such a person will be treated as a Muslim and will be buried in a Muslim graveyard. Those Ulema amongst the Ahli Sunnat Wal Jamât who consider good deeds as part of Imân, actually mean that without good deeds Imân is incomplete and it is essential to perform good deeds to attain excellence in Imân. If anyone has Imân in heart but does not do any good deed, nobody from amongst the Ulema of Ahli Sunnat Wal Jamât believes that he will become a Kâfir. Such a person will remain Mumin though his Imân will remain defective. As per Imâm Abu Haniefah, good deeds are not part of Imân, Imâm Shâfa'ee and Imâm Bukhari regard these are part of Imân. As mentioned above this difference is only superficial because of the fact that what Imâm Abu Haniefah is referring to is essence of Imân and what Imâm Shâfa'ee is referring to is the excellence of Imân, hence no difference.

Belief in Allâh

It means to believe in Oneness and Uniqueness of Allâh Ta'âlâ both in His Essence and His Attributes. To believe in His Self Existence and that His Existence is not dependent upon the existence of any other thing whereas the existence of every other thing is dependent upon His Existence. Imân in Allâh means to acknowledge His bounties, His Mercy and the extreme excellence of all His attributes as is worth His Jalâl and Jamâl.

Different people have Imân of different grades. Common people recite the article of faith i.e., Kalimah by tongue while having faith in their hearts whereas the people possessing higher grade of Imân find themselves in the presence of Allâh thus forgetting the world and remain busy in preparation for Hereafter. Those people having even higher state of Imân, get so much enlightenment from Allâh that they even forget themselves and the dualism is lost to them.

Allâh is the name of Essence of Allâh, the other names like Ar-Rehmân, Ar-Rahim, Al-Gaffâr are the names of His Attributes. So, in His name i.e., Allâh-all His Attributes are also included i.e., when one calls Him by the name of Allâh, he is calling Him by all His Attributes. Allâh alone is worth worshipping, as He alone is the Creator of every creature. He has no partners, no children and no parents, there is none like unto Him. He knows everything and listens everything at the same time. To listen one thing does not make Him unable from listening others. Similarly, seeing one thing does not make Him incapable to see others. He is Omnipotent and does not need any advisers or helpers. He is beyond human comprehension. He is present everywhere but cannot be seen in this world. He has no beginning or end, everything other than Him has a beginning and an end. Nothing happens in this universe out of His Knowledge and Will. He created things from nothing. He says, ‘be' and it ‘becomes'. He is the Real Creator, Designer, Planner and Operator of the whole universe and what is beyond that. No slumber seizes Him nor sleep. Nothing is beyond His kingdom. He is nearer to man than his jugular veins.

His Attributes are also beyond our comprehension. When we say ‘Hand of Allâh', it does not mean something like our hands, similarly when we say He sees, listens or speaks, it does not mean that He has eyes, ears and tongue like ours, but these words are used only for our easy understanding otherwise nobody can comprehend their real meaning, as the way He is Unique in His Essence so is He in His Attributes. His Attributes cannot be compared with that of His creatures. As is the difference between the Creator and the creation, so is the difference between the Attributes of the Creator and the creation, e.g., difference between our seeing and listening and His seeing and listening.

Allâh is beyond time and space as these are created things. There is no present, past or future before Him, these are things for the creatures. One cannot attribute a particular direction to Him, as He is everywhere. It is not proper to attribute words like ascent or descent to Allâh. It is narrated in some traditions that Allâh descends to Aasman-i-Duniya (lowest heaven) during the last part of the night and also during Shabb-i-Qadr. By this descent it should not be understood that Allâh descends physically down as ascent and descent are not worth His Excellency. This word ‘descent' again is from Mutashabihât and Ulema say that by this word descent is meant that Allâh pays special attention towards the world.

Nothing can make him helpless or overpower him. Allâh Ta'âlâ says in Qur'ân:

اللَّهُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُمْ ثُمَّ رَزَقَكُمْ ثُمَّ يُمِيتُكُمْ ثُمَّ يُحْيِيكُمْ هَلْ مِنْ شُرَكَائِكُمْ مَنْ يَفْعَلُ مِنْ ذَلِكُمْ مِنْ شَيْءٍ سُبْحَانَهُ وَتَعَالَى عَمَّا يُشرِكُونَ

"It is Allâh Who has created you, further, He has provided for your sustenance; then He will cause you to die; and again He will give you life. Are there any of your (false) ‘partners' who can do any single one of these things? Glory to Him! and High is He above the partners they attribute (to Him)! (30:40)

وَمَا كَانَ اللَّهُ لِيُعْجِزَهُ مِنْ شَيْءٍ فِي السَّمَوَاتِ وَلَا فِي الْأَرْضِ إِنَّهُ كَانَ عَلِيمًا قَدِيرًا

"And Allâh is not to be frustrated by anything whatever in the heavens or on earth: for He is All-Knowing, All-Powerful.(35:44)

For accomplishing any task one needs two things, power to do that task and the knowledge; Allâh has both, hence can do anything and everything.

Our eyes can see material things only and our minds can understand those things only which are related to matter and can be felt. Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) said that Jannah is such a thing which no eye has seen, no ear has heard of and its idea has not passed through anybody's heart as to what it exactly looks like. When we cannot see or comprehend Jannah, which is material thing and also created one, how will we be able to see or comprehend Allâh who has no material body? Hadhrat Junaid Baghdâdi (RA) has well said: "Whatever idea come to your mind about the being of Allâh, think that He is not like that, as He cannot come in our minds and is above all these imaginations."

Allâh Ta'âlâ says:

لَا تُدْرِكُهُ الْأَبْصَارُ

"No vision can grasp Him" (6:103)

وَلَا يُحِيطُونَ بِهِ عِلْمًا

"And they shall not compass it with their knowledge" (20:110)

لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْءٌ وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْبَصِيرُ

"There is nothing whatever like unto Him, and He is the one that hears and sees" (42:11)

Nothing is like unto Him neither in essence nor in attributes, nor in deeds. His Knowledge is not like our knowledge, His seeing in not like our seeing, His listening is not like our listening. His being on throne is not like our being on throne, His laughing is not like our laughing and His power is not like our power. In short, there is nothing that can be compared with Him or can be given as an example.

Allâh is the Creator free of needs

Allâh Ta'âlâ says:

وَمَا خَلَقْتُ الْجِنَّ وَالْإِنْسَ إِلَّا لِيَعْبُدُونِ () مَا أُرِيدُ مِنْهُمْ مِنْ رِزْقٍ وَمَا أُرِيدُ أَنْ يُطْعِمُونِ () إِنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الرَّزَّاقُ ذُو الْقُوَّةِ الْمَتِينُ ()

"I have only created Jinns and men, that they may serve Me. No, sustenance do I require of them, nor do I require that they should feed me. For Allâh is He Who gives (all) sustenance, Lord of Power, Steadfast (forever).

أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ أَنْتُمُ الْفُقَرَاءُ إِلَى اللَّهِ وَاللَّهُ هُوَ الْغَنِيُّ الْحَمِيدُ

"O ye men! it is you that have need of Allâh: but Allâh is the One free of all wants, worthy of all praise" (35:15)

Allâh provides sustenance to all with utmost ease.

إِنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الرَّزَّاقُ ذُو الْقُوَّةِ الْمَتِينُ

"For Allâh is He Who gives (all) sustenance, Lord or Power, Steadfast (forever) (51:58)

Allâh destroys without fear

He says:

فَكَذَّبُوهُ فَعَقَرُوهَا فَدَمْدَمَ عَلَيْهِمْ رَبُّهُمْ بِذَنْبِهِمْ فَسَوَّاهَا () وَلَا يَخَافُ عُقْبَاهَا ()

"Then they rejected him (as a false prophet), and they hamstrung her. So, their Lord crushed them for their sins and leveled them. And for Him is no fear of its consequences." (91:14-15)

When creatures take some decision, they think of consequences that can be against them but Allâh being the Creator, can create at will and there can be no question of any such apprehension in His case.

Resurrection is easy for Allâh

He says:

وَهُوَ الَّذِي يَبْدَأُ الْخَلْقَ ثُمَّ يُعِيدُهُ وَهُوَ أَهْوَنُ عَلَيْهِ وَلَهُ الْمَثَلُ الْأَعْلَى فِي السَّمَوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ ()

"It is He Who begins the creation; then repeats it; and for Him it is most easy, To Him belongs the loftiest similitude (we can think of) in the heavens and the earth; for He is Exalted in Might, full of Wisdom" (30:27)

In the first instance Allâh created every creature from nothing, when He can create everything from nothing, then how can it be difficult for Him to give life again to dead ones.

لِيُنْفِقْ ذُو سَعَةٍ مِنْ سَعَتِهِ وَمَنْ قُدِرَ عَلَيْهِ رِزْقُهُ فَلْيُنْفِقْ مِمَّا آتَاهُ اللَّهُ لَا يُكَلِّفُ اللَّهُ نَفْسًا إِلَّا مَا آتَاهَا سَيَجْعَلُ اللَّهُ بَعْدَ عُسْرٍ يُسْرًا ()

"The unbelievers think that they will not be Raised up (for Judgement), say: "Yes, by my Lord, you shall surely be raised up: then shall you be told (the truth) of all that you did. And that is easy for Allâh" (64:7)

Allâh is Qadeem so are His Attributes

Qadeem means without beginning, as His Essence is Qadeem so are His Attributes. His Attributes cannot be separated from His Essence. He was Creator (Khâliq) even before creating anything. Act of creation did not add anything to His Essence or Attributes. He will remain Creator even after the creation is no more there. He did not become Creator after creating the creations. He was Creator before that as well. When He created or creates anything, at that time He is active Creator whereas before creating, He was potential Creator. A writer remains a writer even when he is not writing. When he is not writing, he possesses the potential or ability to write, so does not cease to be a writer. Similar is the case with all other attributes of Allâh like seeing (Baseer), Listening (Samee) and Knowing (Aleem) etc. These all Attributes were with Him always even before creating the creation and there will be no loss in them even after the creations will remain no more.

Tawheed (Monotheism-Oneness of Allâh)

Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) once when asked about Islâm by Hadhrat Jibra'eel (AS) said that Islâm means to testify the article of faith, La-ilaha-il-lal-lah Muhammad-ur-Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) (لا إله إلا الله محمد رسول الله), which means that there is no god but Allâh and Muhammad (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) is His Messenger. First step in Islâm is ‘La' which means nothing i.e., first step in Islâm is to achieve the state of nothingness. There are some religions like Buddhism which talk of nothingness. They, after shunning away the world, meditate in solitude to achieve this state of nothingness but they achieve nothing except some illusive imaginations. On the other hand a Muslim has to achieve state of nothingness practically while living an active practical life. A Muslim, by way of this article of faith, believes very firmly that there is nothing but Allâh, He is the only being Who has His own existence and the existence of everything other than His, is dependent upon His existence. No one has any power, strength or existence of its own and whatever anything has, that has been given to it by Allâh. So a Muslim observes the hand of Allâh in the essence of everything and in every action. He sees that any deed performed by anyone is actually commanded by Allâh, so, he gets so much engrossed in the thought of Allâh that he thinks, he feels and he sees that there is none but Allâh. At this stage it is said that this Muslim is tasting the ‘Tawheed'. Imâm al-Ghâzali (RA) says that there are two outer kernels and two inner fruits of ‘Tawheed'. To utter the faith of article, the Kalimah, with the tongue is the outermost kernel and to have its firm faith in the heart is the next kernel. One fruit of Tawheed is that the secret of Tawheed gets manifest with the help of Divine Noor (illumination) to such an extent that such a person sees Allâh as the Ultimate cause of all actions that are taking place around him and sees His Ultimate Causative Hand in all the effects. The other inner fruit of Tawheed is that one does not appreciate existence of anything except that of Allâh and such a person gets engrossed in Allâh to such an extent that he forgets every other thing.

Imâm-al-Ghâzali (RA) gives an example of this as, there was a clean sheet of white paper and something was written on it with a black pen. Someone asked this sheet of paper as to what made your face black, you were just now clean white and now you look black. The paper replied that I was all done by ink and better ask the ink. The ink was asked as to why you blackened the face of white paper. Ink said, "I was at rest in my home (i.e., inkpot), the pen came and pierced my body and took me away from my home and then spread me on the paper. You better ask the pen. The pen was asked about the complaint of the ink. It replied, "I was at my home (i.e., tree), a hand came, brutally broke me away from my parent (tree) and skinned me off and cut my tongue with a sharp knife (the tip of wooden pen is cut in the centre). Now the same hand is making me to walk on the paper headlong. What is my fault, you better ask the hand." The hand was asked about the pen's complaint against it. The hand replied, "I was resting quietly and the will (Irâdha) came and asked me to do it. I don't do anything unless commanded by will to do that. I am helpless, what is my fault, you better ask the will." The chain of these question - answers continues till it ends with Allâh Ta'âlâ. The person, who has been bestowed upon with the blessing of Tawheed (of higher degree), observes Allâh Ta'âlâ even in the ink which is being spread on a sheet of paper with a pen. Same way such a person observes Allâh Ta'âlâ as the Ultimate cause of every deed that is being executed by him or around him.

Fanâ and Baqâ

There comes a time when ‘I' (self) is lost in ‘He' (Allâh). ‘I' no more remains there and there is only ‘He'. Sufis call it ‘Fanâ' and ‘Baqâ'. ‘Fanâ' means that ‘I' no more commands, that means - that such a person does not act as per the commands of ‘I'. ‘Baqâ' means that one acts as per the commands of ‘He' and not ‘I'. It does not mean that ‘I' is replaced by ‘He' in body and soul as some ignorant pseudo mystics believe, such a belief is Kufr (infidelity). It simply means that evil instincts of ‘I' or baser self get completely suppressed and it no longer incites for evil. These evil instincts are replaced by pious instincts and it becomes very easy for such a person to do good deeds, rather it becomes his nature to do good and to follow the commands of Shari'ah in letter and spirit.

Wahdat-ul-Wujud (Unity of Existence)

When it is said that nothing exists other than Allâh, ignorant people take it as if everything is god, so they worship everything, which is an evident Kufr. These people call it Wahdat-ul-Wujud (Unity of Existence); such an interpretation is totally wrong and unfounded. One may ask a question as to what is the meaning of ‘nothing exists other than Allâh'? Well, it means that nothing exists itself other than Allâh. The existence of every other thing is dependant upon the existence of Allâh and latter is not dependant on anything other than Himself. We see millions of stars in the sky during night, when sun rises in the morning, we see no stars. Where have they gone? They are very much there but in the presence of the sun they become invisible, though they do exist during day as well. Similarly, we can say that the existence of creatures becomes insignificant in the presence of the existence of Allâh, though all living creatures do have their existence. So, to say that creatures are actually creator is not correct.

Some saintly people sometimes experience a wonderful state in which they loose all demarcations of self and non-self and get absorbed in the Reality to such an extent that it becomes difficult for them to differentiate between the one who looks and the one who is looked upon. This state is a momentary state and does not last long. Such an experience is something extra-ordinary and cannot be described in words, only those who experience it can understand it, for others it is wastage of time to discuss such things.

Salâh

Establishment of Salâh is next to the article of faith i.e., Kalimah. After having firm faith in Allâh and His Messenger (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam), the next most important constituent of Islâm is the establishment of Salâh. Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) said in a Hadith that one who deliberately leaves Salâh, does an act of Kufr and that Salâh distinguishes a Muslim from a non-Muslim. Salâh is the most complete and the best form of worship one can think of. It involves all faculties viz., mental and spiritual for the act of worship in the real form. Best way of asking somebody about Mercy and Kindness is to stand in front of him quietly, nicely with folded hands and one may bow before him in reverence and extreme form of physical respect is shown by prostrating before him, placing one's head of pride on the ground. Since Islâm teaches that the only Helper, Merciful and Benevolent is Allâh, so it has banned from bowing in front of any other being other than Allâh. Islâm teaches that Allâh alone fulfills all needs from the smallest to the biggest, so a Muslim is asked to bow before Allâh only and this he does in Salâh, in the form of Qiyâm, Ruku and Sajdah. The contents of Salâh, the Qur'ân and other words which one is supposed to recite in Salâh, express greatness of Allâh, His countless bounties and gratefulness for the same with Tawheed (monotheism) and Ikhlas (sincerety) and in the remaining part the bondsman, the performer of Salâh, prays to Almighty Allâh with full respect from the core of his heart and asks His help and Mercy. The wording is such that it looks as if the bondsman is having a direct conversation with Almighty Allâh. It is for this reason that Salâh is called ‘Me'raj-ul-Mumineen'. In Me'raj Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) was taken up into the Heavens even above them where he got the highest nearness to Allâh and talked to Allâh at the closest range, it was at this moment that Allâh gave Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) Salâh as a gift for his Ummah, so that the Ummah can get nearness of Allâh and His pleasure in Salâh.

Aqeem-us-Salâh

Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) used the word ‘Aqeem-us-Salâh' which means to establish the Salâh and did not say to offer the Salâh. Ulema say that establishment of Salâh means to offer Salâh along with all its ideal conditions, for example, to offer Salâh in time with proper cleanliness of mind, soul, body, clothes and place. To offer Salâh slowly with grace and not in haste manner, and with presence of mind humility, with fear and love of Allâh and in Jama't (congregational) etc.

Zakâh

Third constituent of Islâm after Salâh is to pay Zakâh (poor tax). Every Muslim is supposed to pay two and a half percent of his/her yearly savings as poor tax if that exceeds the prescribed limit. Zakâh is an Arabic word which means purity, so this tax has been imposed on wealthy Muslims so that the rest of their wealth gets purified from the impurities of sins etc. The tax is so much less that it becomes very easy to pay. The main difference of Islâmic Tax of Zakâh and that of modern taxation is that former is on saving while the latter is on income. It is easy to pay from saving than from that income which has already been spent.

For those who strive for higher states of Imân, the word Zakâh means something more. For them it means to purify the exterior (Zâhir) and interior (Bâtin) by shunning away wealth and spending that for the pleasure of Allâh and to purify the Qalb from everything other than Allâh so that it can perceive the rays of Divine light.

Saum

Fourth constituent of Islâm is to observe fast (Saum), during the month of Ramadhan. It is obligatory for Muslims to observe fast from dawn to sunset for the whole month of Ramadhan every year. The benefits of Saum for the physical health are numerous which can be seen in the books written on this subject. It has immense spiritual benefits as well. It weakens the bestial instincts in man and strengthens in him the Angelic instincts. Man comes closer to the Angels and his Qalb begins appreciating the fine subtleties of nature. The one who observes fasts is very much loved by Allâh to the extent that Allâh has promised that He will Himself reward the doer of this act

Haj

The fifth constituent of Islâm which Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) stated in this Hadith is Haj. Hajj is obligatory once in a life time for those Muslims who can go to Makkah-al-Mukarramah either on foot, camel or horse etc or have enough money to arrange for other means of transportation, accommodation and meals and can support their dependants monetarily back home. Hajj is performed once in a year from 8th to 12th Zil-Hajj at Makkah-al-Mukarramah. The details can be seen from the various books on Haj.

باب - أُمُورِ الإِيمَانِ وَقَوْلِ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى لَيْسَ البِرَّ أنْ تُوَلُّوا وُجُوهَكُمْ قِبَلَ المشْرِقِ والمغْرِبِ ولكِنّ َ البِرَّ مَنْ آمَنَ بِاللَّهِ واليَوْم الآخِرِ والمَلائِكَةِ والكِتَابِ والنَّبِيينَ وآتى المَال عَلَى حُبّهِ ذَوِي القُرْبى واليَتَامَى والمَساكِينَ وابْنَ السَّبِيلِ والسَّائِلِينَ وفي الرِّقَابِ وأقَامَ الصَّلاَةَ وأتَى الزَّكَاةَ والمُوفُونَ بِعَهْدِهِمْ إذَا عَاهَدُوا والصَّابرينَ في البَأْسَاءِ والضَّرَاءِ وحِينَ البَأْسِ أُولئِكَ الذَينَ صَدَقُوا وأُولَئكَ هُمُ المتَّقُونَ (البقرة 177) قَدْ أفْلَحَ المؤمِنُونَ (المؤمنون 1)الآيَةَ

Chapter (Bâb) 3: (What is said) in the matters of faith, and the saying of Allâh:

لَيْسَ الْبِرَّ أَنْ تُوَلُّوا وُجُوهَكُمْ قِبَلَ الْمَشْرِقِ وَالْمَغْرِبِ وَلَكِنَّ الْبِرَّ مَنْ آمَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَالْمَلَائِكَةِ وَالْكِتَابِ وَالنَّبِيِّينَ وَآتَى الْمَالَ عَلَى حُبِّهِ ذَوِي الْقُرْبَى وَالْيَتَامَى وَالْمَسَاكِينَ وَابْنَ السَّبِيلِ وَالسَّائِلِينَ وَفِي الرِّقَابِ وَأَقَامَ الصَّلَاةَ وَآتَى الزَّكَاةَ وَالْمُوفُونَ بِعَهْدِهِمْ إِذَا عَاهَدُوا وَالصَّابِرِينَ فِي الْبَأْسَاءِ وَالضَّرَّاءِ وَحِينَ الْبَأْسِ أُولَئِكَ الَّذِينَ صَدَقُوا وَأُولَئِكَ هُمُ الْمُتَّقُونَ

"It is not Al-Birr (piety, righteousness, and every act of obedience to Allâh) that you turn your faces towards east and (or) west (in prayers); but Al-Birr is (the quality of) the one who believes in Allâh, the Last Day, The Angels, the Book, the Prophets and gives his wealth in spite of love of it, to the kinsfolk, to the orphans, and to al-Masakin (the poor) and to the wayfarer, and to those who ask, and to set slaves free, performs As-Salat (Iqamat-as-Salat) and gives the Zakâh, and who fulfil their covenant when they make it, and who are patient in extreme poverty and ailment and at the time of fighting (during the battles). Such are the people of the truth and they are Al-Muttaqun (the pious). (2:177)

قَدْ أَفْلَحَ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ () الَّذِينَ هُمْ فِي صَلَاتِهِمْ خَاشِعُونَ () وَالَّذِينَ هُمْ عَنِ اللَّغْوِ مُعْرِضُونَ () وَالَّذِينَ هُمْ لِلزَّكَاةِ فَاعِلُونَ () وَالَّذِينَ هُمْ لِفُرُوجِهِمْ حَافِظُونَ () إِلَّا عَلَى أَزْوَاجِهِمْ أَوْ مَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُهُمْ فَإِنَّهُمْ غَيْرُ مَلُومِينَ () فَمَنِ ابْتَغَى وَرَاءَ ذَلِكَ فَأُولَئِكَ هُمُ الْعَادُونَ () وَالَّذِينَ هُمْ لِأَمَانَاتِهِمْ وَعَهْدِهِمْ رَاعُونَ () وَالَّذِينَ هُمْ عَلَى صَلَوَاتِهِمْ يُحَافِظُونَ () أُولَئِكَ هُمُ الْوَارِثُونَ () الَّذِينَ يَرِثُونَ الْفِرْدَوْسَ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ ()

"Successful indeed are the believers those who offer their Salat with all solemnity and full submissiveness. And those who turn away from Al-Laghw (dirty, false, evil vain talk, falsehood, and all that Allâh has forbidden). And those who guard their chastity (i.e., private parts, from illegal sexual acts). Except from their wives or that their right hands possess, - for then, they are free from blame. But whosoever seeks beyond that, then those who are transgressors; those who are faithfully true to their Amanât (all the duties which Allâh has ordained, honesty, moral responsibility and trusts) and to their covenants; and those who strictly guard their (five compulsory congregational) Salawât (prayers) (at their fixed stated hours). these are indeed the inheritors who shall inherit the Firdous (Paradise). They shall dwell therein forever." (23:1-11)

Hadith No. 8

ـ حدّثنا ( عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ مُحَمَّد ) ٍ قال حدثنا ( أبُو عَامِرٍ العَقَدِي ) ُّ قال حدثنا ( سُلَيْمَانُ بْنُ بِلاَل ) ٍ عَنْ ( عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ دِينَار ) ٍ عَنْ ( أبْيِ صَالِح ) ٍ عَنْ ( أبي هُرَيْرَة ) َ رضي الله عنه عن النبي قالَ الإِيِمَانُ بِضْعٌ وسِتُّونَ شُعْبَةً والحَياءُ شُعْبَةٌ مِنَ الإِيمَانِ

Narrated Abu Hurairah (RA)

The Prophet said, "Faith (Belief) consists of more than sixty branches (i.e. parts). And Hayâ (modesty) (The term "Haya" covers a large number of concepts which are to be taken together; amongst them are self respect, modesty, bashfulness, and scruple, etc.) is a part of faith."

Purpose of Tarjamatul Bâb

In previous Hadith Imâm Bukhari mentioned five basic pillars of Islâm and now he is presenting a Hadith related to the branches of Islâm, that is why he has labelled this chapter as "things related to Imân". Imâm Bukhari also wants to convey that Islâm is not confined to five things only but there are so many other things as well. The other thing which Imâm Bukhari wants to prove by getting this Hadith here is his view point that Imân is the name of beliefs and deeds .

Purpose of quoting verses of the Qur'an here

Imâm Bukhari has quoted two verses here, one from Surah Baqarah (2:177) and other from Surah Mu'minoon (23:1-11). First verse mentions the things related to Imân and the second verse states some qualities of believers (Mumineen). Hâfiz Ibn Hajar has quoted Abdur Razaq on the authority of Mujâhid that once Abu Zar (RA) asked Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) about Imân and Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) recited the same Aayat, viz.,

لَيْسَ الْبِرَّ أَنْ تُوَلُّوا وُجُوهَكُمْ قِبَلَ الْمَشْرِقِ وَالْمَغْرِبِ وَلَكِنَّ الْبِرَّ مَنْ آمَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَالْمَلَائِكَةِ وَالْكِتَابِ وَالنَّبِيِّينَ وَآتَى الْمَالَ عَلَى حُبِّهِ ذَوِي الْقُرْبَى وَالْيَتَامَى وَالْمَسَاكِينَ وَابْنَ السَّبِيلِ وَالسَّائِلِينَ وَفِي الرِّقَابِ وَأَقَامَ الصَّلَاةَ وَآتَى الزَّكَاةَ وَالْمُوفُونَ بِعَهْدِهِمْ إِذَا عَاهَدُوا وَالصَّابِرِينَ فِي الْبَأْسَاءِ وَالضَّرَّاءِ وَحِينَ الْبَأْسِ أُولَئِكَ الَّذِينَ صَدَقُوا وَأُولَئِكَ هُمُ الْمُتَّقُونَ

"It is not Al-Birr (piety, righteousness, and every act of obedience to Allâh) that you turn your faces towards east and (or) west (in prayers); but Al-Birr is (the quality of) the one who believes in Allâh, the Last Day, The Angels, the Book, the Prophets and gives his wealth in spite of love of it, to the kinsfolk, to the orphans, and to al-Masakin (the poor) and to the wayfarer, and to those who ask, and to set slaves free, performs As-Salat (Iqamat-as-Salat) and gives the Zakâh, and who fulfil their covenant when they make it, and who are patient in extreme poverty and ailment and at the time of fighting (during the battles). Such are the people of the truth and they are Al-Muttaqun (the pious). (2:177)

Are the things mentioned in this Aayat included in Imân?

In this ayat it is said, وأُولَئكَ هُمُ المتَّقُونَ "Such are the people of truth the Muttaqun (pious)". Muttaqun (those who fear Allâh) are those who refrain from Shirk (Polytheism) and sins, so such qualities are included in Imân. When Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) was told by Allâh Ta'âlâ to take Khânah Ka'bah as Qiblah instead of Baitul Maqdis, the enemies of Islâm raised their voices, some objected, what kind of Prophet is Muhammad (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) that one day he taking one Qiblah and the other day another. Others were telling the Muslims that Baitul Maqdis was the Qiblah of thousands of prophets then how is he changing that Qiblah if he is the Prophet. On this occasion Allâhu Ta'âlâ sent down this Aayat:

لَيْسَ الْبِرَّ أَنْ تُوَلُّوا وُجُوهَكُمْ قِبَلَ الْمَشْرِقِ وَالْمَغْرِبِ وَلَكِنَّ الْبِرَّ مَنْ آمَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَالْمَلَائِكَةِ وَالْكِتَابِ وَالنَّبِيِّينَ

"It is not Al-Birr (piety, righteousness, and every act of obedience to Allâh) that you turn your faces towards east and (or) west (in prayers); but Al-Birr is (the quality of) the one who believes in Allâh, the Last Day, The Angels, the Book, the Prophets."

True Imân is the spirit of obedience towards Allâhu Ta'âlâ, whatever He commands, is to be obeyed without showing any reluctance. Hypocrites also used to offer Salâh (prayers) and other deeds but it was of no use to them as they lacked the necessary spirit of Imân.

This Aayat represents the Shari'ah in a comprehensive way. The Shari'ah in general consists of three aspects , viz.,

Aqaid (Beliefs)

True beliefs constitute the basis of Imân, This is mentioned as:

"It is not Al-Birr (piety, righteousness, and every act of obedience to Allâh) that you turn your faces towards east and (or) west (in prayers); but Al-Birr is (the quality of) the one who believes in Allâh, the Last Day, The Angels, the Book, the Prophets"

Good morals and good social etiquettes

After having the true and correct beliefs one needs good morals and good social etiquettes, these are mentioned as:

"and gives his wealth in spite of love of it, to the kinsfolk, to the orphans, and to al-Masâkin (the poor) and to the wayfarer, and to those who ask, and to set slaves free,"

3. Self reformation and spiritual progress

It has two aspects, one, the relation of the bondsman with Allâh Ta'âlâ, it is mentioned as:

"performs As-Salat (Iqamat-as-Salat) and gives the Zakâh,"

Second, the relation of man with other creatures, it is mentioned as:

"and who fulfil their covenant when they make it, and who are patient in extreme poverty and ailment and at the time of fighting (during the battles)"

So, one can easily understand the comprehensiveness of this Aayat.

Second ayat which Imâm Bukhari has quoted here is:

قَدْ أَفْلَحَ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ () الَّذِينَ هُمْ فِي صَلَاتِهِمْ خَاشِعُونَ () وَالَّذِينَ هُمْ عَنِ اللَّغْوِ مُعْرِضُونَ () وَالَّذِينَ هُمْ لِلزَّكَاةِ فَاعِلُونَ () وَالَّذِينَ هُمْ لِفُرُوجِهِمْ حَافِظُونَ () إِلَّا عَلَى أَزْوَاجِهِمْ أَوْ مَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُهُمْ فَإِنَّهُمْ غَيْرُ مَلُومِينَ () فَمَنِ ابْتَغَى وَرَاءَ ذَلِكَ فَأُولَئِكَ هُمُ الْعَادُونَ () وَالَّذِينَ هُمْ لِأَمَانَاتِهِمْ وَعَهْدِهِمْ رَاعُونَ () وَالَّذِينَ هُمْ عَلَى صَلَوَاتِهِمْ يُحَافِظُونَ () أُولَئِكَ هُمُ الْوَارِثُونَ () الَّذِينَ يَرِثُونَ الْفِرْدَوْسَ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ ()

"Successful indeed are the believers those who offer their Salat with all solemnity and full submissiveness. And those who turn away from Al-Laghw (dirty, false, evil vain talk, falsehood, and all that Allâh has forbidden). And those who guard their chastity (i.e., private parts, from illegal sexual acts). Except from their wives or that their right hands possess, - for then, they are free from blame. But whosoever seeks beyond that, then those who are transgressors; those who are faithfully true to their Amanât (all the duties which Allâh has ordained, honesty, moral responsibility and trusts) and to their covenants; and those who strictly guard their (five compulsory congregational) Salawât (prayers) (at their fixed stated hours). these are indeed the inheritors who shall inherit the Firdous (Paradise). They shall dwell therein forever." (23:1-11)

These verses vividly describe the attributes of a Mumin.

According to the Hadith The Prophet said,

"Faith (Belief) consists of more than sixty branches (i.e. parts) and Hayâ (modesty) is a part of faith."

Narrator-Abu Hurairah

Abu Hurairah (RA) is one of the famous companions of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) who was Faqih, Hâfiz and a great narrator of Hadith. He embraced Islâm in seven Hijrah and since then remained glued with Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) in order to learn Qur'an and Hadith. He has narrated around Five thousand, three hundred and seventy Ahâdith. It is said that once Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) saw Abu Hurairah with a cat in his lap and he called him "Ya Abu Hurairah", since then he got famous with this name. His real name as per the majority of Ulema was Abdul Rehmân. He died in 57 Hijrah and was buried in the graveyard of Baqee in Madinah.

Comments

The meaning of the word Bidh'un:

Bidh'un in arabic means ‘from three to nine' as per majority, some say that it means from ‘one to nine', while some say that it means from ‘three to ten'.

Difference in the narrations

In some narrations the word Sab'oon (seventy), has while in some other, the word Sittoon (sixty) has been narrated. Imâm Bukhari has mentioned the word Sittoon as the lower figure (i.e., sixty) is the sure figure out of two. Others say that such words like Sab'oon or Sittoon in arabic do not mean any definite number but these are used to denote a multiple number.

Branches of Imân

Imâm Abu Hatam Ibn Hibban has tried to collect the various branches of Imân from Qur'an and Hadith. Hâfiz Ibn Hajar was unable to find his book so he divided these branches into three main groups, viz.,

Deeds related to Qalb:- These are 24 in number.

Deeds related to Tongue:- These are seven in number.

Deeds related to body:- These are 38 in number.

Allâh Ta'âlâ says in the Qur'an:

"Seest thou not how Allâh sets forth a parable? a goodly Word like a goodly tree whose root is firmly fixed and its branches (reach) to the heavens" (14:24)

In this Aayat the Kalimah Tayyibah (goodly word) has been compared with a tree and the deeds with its branches. Similarly in this Hadith the Imân has been compared with the tree and the deeds with its branches.

Branches of Imân ( quoted from Fruoo' ul Imân by Ashraf Ali Thânvi, English translation by the author):

Thirty branches of Imân related to Qalb

1. To believe in Allâh.

2. To believe that everythiung other than Allâh is created and Makhlooq.

3. To believe in Angels.

4. To believe in all His books.

5. To believe in all His Prophets.

6. To believe in Taqdeer (Predestination).

7.To believe in the day of judgement (Al-Qiyâmah).

8.To believe in Jannah.

9.To believe in Jahannam.

10.To love Allâh.

11. To love somebody for the sake of Allâh and to hate somebody for the sake of Allâh.

12.To love Prophet Muhammad (Sallallâhu alaihi Wasallam)).

13. Ikhlâs (Sincerity).

14. Toaba (Repentance).

15. Khouf (Fear)

16. Rijâ (Hope)

17. Hayâ (Modesty)

18. Shukr (Gratitude, Thanks giving)

19. To fulfill the promise.

20. Sabr (Patience)

21. Tawâdhu (Humility)

22. Kindness to mankind.

23. To be happy with (Qadha-Ilahi) predestination

24. To have Tawakkul (Trust in Allâh)

25. To leave Ujb (self-conceit , vanity)

26. To leave Keena (hatred)/.

27. To leave Hassad (Jealousy).

28. To leave Anger.

29. To leave evil-wishing

30. To leave love of the world.

Other branches related to other parts of body

1. To obtain Tahârah (cleanliness). This includes cleanliness of body, clothes, place, ablution, Ghusl, post coition and for menses, all gets included in this.

2. Establishment of Salâh. It includes Fardh, Nafl, and Qadha all of them.

3. Charity:- It includes Zakâh, Sadqa Fitra, Charitable meals (for poor) and invitation for meals in honour of the guests.

4. Fasts (Roza): - Fardh and Nafl.

5. Hajj and Umrah.,

6. Aetikâf:- It includes searching of Shab-i-Qadr.

7. To go to some other place in order to serve Deen. It includes Hijrah also.,

8. To fulfill Nazar (vow)

9. To take care of Oath.

10. To pay Kaffarahh (expiation for sins).

11. To cover one's body (clothes) in Salâh and outside Salâh.

12. To offer Qurbani.

13.To participate in funeral procession (Janâzah), Tajheez (Shrouding), Takfeen and Tadfeen

14. To pay the debt.

15. To be honest in one's dealings and avoid unconditional dealings.

16. To bear true witness and not to conceal it.,

Six related to one's family and subordinates

1. To obtain chastity with marriage (Nikah).

2. To fulfill the rights (give dues) to one's family. It includes kindness with servants and subordinates as well.

3. Service of parents and not to tease them.

4. To bring up children.

5. To behave nicely with relatives.

6. To obey the orders of the master.

Eighteen related about the common Muslims

1. To do justice with the government

2. To follow the party (of majority) of Muslims.

3. To obey the rulers.

4. To reform the people. War against the Khwârji's and in it are included rebels, as getting rid of the rebellion becomes cause for reform and peace.

5. To help in things of virtue.

6. To say a word of righteousness.

7. To forbid from bad words

8. To participate in Jihâd, it includes the protection of borders as well.

9. To pay the entrusted thing (Amânat). It includes taking of Khumus' also.

10. To lend money to needy.

11. To respect the neighbours.

12. Honest dealing.

13. To spend the money at the right moment for the right thing. It includes avoidance of extravagance also.

14. To answer the Salâm.

15. To answer one who sneezes, when he says Al-Hamdulillah, say Yarhamakallah.

16. Not to tease people.

17. To avoid useless and false things.

18. To remove harmful objects from the road like corn, stone etc.

And Hayâ (modesty) is a part of faith

Haya is also a branch of Imân, then why is it mentioned separately?

The reason is that Hayâ is such a branch that is helpful in obtaining all other branches of Imân. Imâm Râgib has defined Hayâ as

انقباض النفس عن القبائح و تركه

"to prevent oneself from evil, corrupt, immoral etc., things and to leave them"

A person possessing Hayâ is able to refrain from all bad things and will perform all those duties he is supposed to do. As such Hayâ is helpful in obtaining all other branches of Imân and hence mentioned separately in order to show its significance. Some people say that Hayâ is inherent in the very nature of man and hence natural, so it should not be a branch of Imân. It is true that the Hayâ is inherent in the very nature of man but many people do not act upon this natural instinct due to the influence of the baser self. One has to oppose the instincts of baser self and to act upon the natural instinct, for this one has to exert, that is why Hayâ is regarded as a significant branch of Imân.

Tirmidhi has reported on the authority of Abdullah bin Mas'ood (RA) that Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) said:

استحيوا من الله حق الحياء قلنا يا رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أنا نستحي والحمد لله قال ليس ذالك و لكن إلا استحياء من الله حق الحياء أن تحفظ الرأس و ما وعى

"Owe Hayâ of Allâh as He deserves the same", the Sahâbah said, Thanks to Allâh, they do owe Hayâ of Allâh." Rasulullah said, "It is not like that what you think, the Hayâ of Allâh as He deserves it is to protect your head (including every organ it possesses like brain, eyes, ears etc.) from sins, and to protect the baser self (Nafs) from Harâm."

Essence of Hayâ

إن مولاك لا يراك حيث نهاك

"Indeed your Lord should not catch you in a position from which He has prohibited you"

باب - المُسْلِمُ مَنْ سَلِمَ المُسْلِمُونَ مِنْ لِسَانِهِ وَيَدِهِ

Chapter (Bâb) 4: A Muslim is the one who avoids harming Muslims with his tongue and hands"

Hadith No. 9

حدّثنا ( آدَمُ بْنُ أبِي إيَاس ) ٍ قالَ حدثنا ( شُعْبَة ) ُ عَنْ ( عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ أبِي السَّفَرِ وإِسْمَاعِيل ) َ عَنِ ( الشَّعْبِي ) ِّ عَنْ ( عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بنِ عَمْرو ) ٍ رضي الله عنهما عَنِ النبي قالَ المُسْلِمُ مَنْ سَلِمَ الْمسْلِمُونَ مِنْ لِسَانِهِ وَيَدِهِ والمُهَاجِرُ مَنْ هَجَرَ ما نَهَى اللَّهُ عَنْهُ قَالَ أبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ وقالَ أبُو مُعَاوَيَةَ حدثنا داودُ عَنْ عامِرٍ قال سَمِعْتُ عَبْدَ اللَّهِ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ وقالَ عَبْدُ الأَعْلَى عَنْ دَاودَ عَنْ عَبْدِ الله عَنِ النَّبِيِّ

Narrated Abdullah bin Amr

The Prophet said, "A Muslim is the one, who avoids harming Muslims with his tongue and hands. And a Muhâjir (emigrant) is the one who gives up (abandons) all what Allâh has forbidden."

Narrator-Abdullah bin Amr

Abdullah bin Amr bin al Aas is a famous Sahâbi who had sought permission from Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) for writing the Hadith and had compiled a collection of Hadith named Saheefa as-Sâdiqa

Tarjamat-ul-Bâb

Imâm Bukhari first selected the Hadith that mentions five things which constitute the base of Islâm, then he took the Hadith mentioning that Imân is not confined to these five things only but has many branches and out of those Hayâ is the most significant branch of Imân. Hayâ is between the bondsman and Allâh. Now Imâm Bukhari wants to convey that the next most important and essential constituent of Imân is, to be very sympathetic to the whole of creation and to protect the same from any kind of harm and that, one cannot be a perfect Mumin unless other Muslims are safe from his harms. The selection of the sequence of Ahâdith in this great book of Imâm Bukhari exhibits extraordinary skill of Imâm Bukhari, admitted by one and all the scholars of Islâm, both ancient and recent. Here Imâm Bukhari has utilised the words of the Hadith for the Tarjamat ul Bâb as well, this is another beauty of his great skill. Sometimes he uses the word Imân and sometimes the word Islâm, conveying thereby the two are synonymous.

Comments

This Hadith says :

المُسْلِمُ مَنْ سَلِمَ الْمسْلِمُونَ مِنْ لِسَانِهِ وَيَدِهِ

"A Muslim is the one, who avoids harming Muslims with his tongue and hands ".

Here Alif Lâm is used as prefix for the word Muslim. Ulema have elucidated different explanations about this. Some say that here Alif Lâm denotes, only that person is a perfect Muslim by whose tongue and hand others remain secure. Allâmah Anwar shah Kashmiri (RA) says that here Alif Lâm is Jinsy which means that only that person is worth calling a Muslim who does not harm others, in other words it means that Islâm and harmless nature of a man is synonymous. This should serve as an eye opener for those who label Muslims as terrorists and things like that. It is worth mentioning here that the literal meaning of Islâm is peace.

Note: To possess basic Imân is a precondition of being a Mumin. After possessing the basic Imân it becomes obligatory upon a Mumin to become beneficial for others as much as possible. Perfect Imân and harmful nature do not go together.

Is it permissible to harm non-Muslims?

No, it is not permissible in Islâm to harm non-Muslims. In Islâm harming or injuring even animals or insects is prohibited, not to speak of human beings whether Muslims or non-Muslims. Islâm means the service to humanity. If you think about any Islâmic principle, you will observe that it will be nothing but for the betterment of humanity. Now, the question arises, why in this Hadith security of Muslims is only mentioned? Ulema say it is because Muslims usually stay with Muslims and their day to day dealings are usually among themselves. Secondly the non Muslims are of two types, one, those are in peace with Muslims, to harm them is not permissible. Second group are those who at war with Muslims, their matter is obviously different.

Harming with Tongue

Tongue is one of those human organs which is misused most. Although small in size, but deeper are the wounds caused by it. It is more often used than the hands for harming others, that is why it is mentioned first. It is said;

جراحات السنان لها التيام

ولا يلتلم ماجرح اللسان

"Wounds caused by the teeth do heal

Wounds caused by the tongue do not heal".

Is it permissible to harm with other organs?

No, harming with other organs is also not permissible. Here tongue and hand are mentioned because these two organs are more frequently used for harming others than other organs. Harms of tongue include all things like abuses, undue criticism, false allegations and back biting etc.

Second part of Hadith

والمُهَاجِرُ مَنْ هَجَرَ ما نَهَى اللَّهُ عَنْهُ

"And a Muhâjir (emigrant) is the one who gives up (abandons) all what Allâh has forbidden"

The second part of the Hadith says that a Muhâjir (emi-grant) is one who runs away from sins. Muhâjir means the one who performs Hijrah. The Hijrah means to leave one's homeland for the sake of Allâh i.e., if one is unable to perform his religious obligations freely in his homeland, then he migrates to such a place where he can live an Islâmic life comfortably.

من دال النفر إلى دار الإسلام

Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) and his Sahâbah migrated from Makkah to Madinah because of the same reason. In this Hadith the other type of Hijrah is mentioned which means to run away from the obedience of baser self or Nafs towards the obedience of Allâh.

Ulema have given two reasons for this Hadith.

1. The Sahâbah went to Madinah after Hijrah and the people of Madinah made them their brothers and gave them half of their properties. There was an apprehension that some people might perform Hijrah for this purpose only. Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) said that "And a Muhâjir (emigrant) is the one who gives up (abandons) all what Allâh has forbidden". By this the Sahâbah were informed that only that Hijrah is valid which is solely for the sake of Allâh.

2. The second reason mentioned is that many Sahâbah could not participate in the first Hijrah and some of them embraced Islâm after that, so they were feeling deprived. For their satisfaction, Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) told them that the true Hijrah is to shun away the sins.

باب - أيُّ الإِسْلاَم أفْضَلُ

Chapter (Bâb) 5: Whose (kind) of Islâm is the best.

Hadith No. 10

حدّثنا ( سَعِيدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى بْنِ سَعِيدٍ القُرَشِي ) ِّ قالَ حدثنا أبِي قالَ حدثنا ( أبُو بُرْدَةَ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ أبِي بُرْدَة ) َ عَنْ ( أبِي بُرْدَة ) َ عَنْ ( أبِي مُوسَى ) رَضِي الله عنه قالَ قَالُوا يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ أيُّ الإِسْلاَمِ أفْضَلُ قَالَ مَنْ سَلِمَ الْمُسْلِمُونَ مِنْ لِسَانِهِ وَيَدِهِ

Narrated Abu Musâ

Some people asked Allâh's Apostle, "What kind of Islâm is the best? i.e. (Who is the best Muslim)?" He replied, "One who saves the Muslims of his tongue and hands."

Purpose of the Tarjamat ul Bâb

From the previous Hadith it seems that one does not remain a Muslim if he harms other Muslim brethren with his tongue and hands. This kind of belief is of Khwarjis and Mautezellitis. They say that the executer of major sins becomes a Kâfir, whereas the belief of Ahl-Sunnat wal Jamât is that the executer of major sins becomes a Fâsiq and not the Kâfir. Here in this Hadith Imâm Bukhari chose the Tarjamt ul Bâb as "Whose Islâm is the best", conveying thereby that such a person still remains a Muslim, bur of course of very low grade.

Narrator-Abu Musâ Ash'ari

Abu Musâ Ash'ari is a famous Sahâbi, he embraced Islâm before Hijrah of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) to Madinah. He has the distinction of having performed Hijrah thrice, first towards Yemen, then to Habsha and then from Habsha to Madinah. Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) appointed him the governor of a part of Yemen and Hadhrat Umar (RA) appointed him as the incharge of Kufa and Basra. He has narrated about three hundred and sixty Ahâdith. He died in 44 Hijrah.

Comments

It is reported that Imâm Abu Dawood selected four thousand and eight hundred Ahâdith for his book Sunan Abu Dawood, out of five lakh Ahâdith. Out of these 4800 Ahâdith, he selected four Ahâdith which according to him are sufficient for one's deeds. These four A Hadith are:

إنما الأعمال باالنيات

1."The rewards of deeds depends upon the intention and every person will get the reward according to his intention".

لا يؤمن أحدكم حتى يحب لأخي ما يحب لنفسه

2."None of you will have faith, till he wishes for his (Muslim) brother what he likes for himself."

من حسن الأسلام المرءِ تركه ما لا يعنيه

3."Beauty of one's Islâm is to leave what is useless "

الحرام بين والحلال بين

4.Halâl and Harâm are quite evident and between these two are the doubtful things. One who leaves these doubtful things, saves his Deen"

Similarly Imâm Abu Haniefah selected five Ahâdith, four of which are same as quoted by Imâm Abu Dawood and the fifth one is:

المسلم من سلم المسلمون من لسانه و يده

"A Muslim is the one by whose tongue and hand other Muslim brethren remain secure"

Before the advent of Islâm i.e., during the period of Jâhiliyah (ignorance), people were afraid of one another. Everybody felt proud in causing harm to others. Islâm being the religion of peace, first introduced Salâm (Islâmic way of greeting). Islâm commanded its believers that when you see one another say "As-salâmu Alaikum", which means peace be upon you, there is no reason to be afraid of anything and I am nothing but absolute peace for you. This is the true meaning of the Salâm, that is conveyed to the addressee. The other person says "Wa'alaikum-us-Salâm", which means, "and peace be also upon you". Since such peaceful nature was inculcated in these people, it was further strengthened by the Hadith in which Muslims were told categorically that they cannot be true Muslims unless they ensure the safety to other fellow Muslim brethren.

باب : إطْعَامُ الطَّعَامِ مِنَ الإِسْلاَمِ

Chapter (Bâb) 6: To feed (others) is a part Islâm.

Hadith No. 11

حدّثنا ( عَمْرُو بْنُ خَالِد ) ٍ قالَ حدّثنا ( اللَّيْث ) ُ عَنْ ( يَزِيد ) َ عَنْ ( أبِي الخَيْر ) ِ عَنْ ( عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَمْرو ) ٍ رَضِي الله عنهما أنّ رَجُلاً سَأَلَ النَّبِيِّ أيُّ الإِسْلاَمِ خيْرٌ قالَ تُطْعِمُ الطَّعَامَ وَتَقْرَأُ السَّلاَمَ علىَ مَنْ عَرَفْتَ وَمَنْ لَمْ تَعْرِفْ

Narrated Abdullah bin Amr

A man asked the Prophet, "What sort of deeds or (what qualities of) Islâm are good?" The Prophet replied, "To feed (the poor) and greet everyone (with Salâm) those whom you know and those whom you do not know".

Tarjamatul Bâb and great skill of Imâm Bukhari in this field

Imâm Bukhari retains the interest of the reader intact by selecting the words for titles of his chapters differently (Tarjamatul Bâb) and offers the scholars much food for thought by forcing them to ponder over the selection of his words and the sequence of Ahâdith in his book. First he selected a Hadith about Imân, then about the things related to Imân and in that also he leads the reader gradually up to the different levels of Imân. In previous Hadith it was mentioned that a Muslim should not harm others, and in this Hadith, he is being told that he is not only supposed to refrain from harming others but he should also try to offer some other benefits to them like provide food, clothing, and other necessary things when needed.

Comments

Islâm is the name of service to humanity, it teaches to respect and serve the humanity. It not only bans its followers from causing harm to anybody, but also motivates them to use their tongue in favourable manner as regards to others and also to spend their hard earned money for the benefit of others in terms of feeding them and other charities.

Salâm is the unique gift of Islâm

The tongue is a great source of evil, nevertheless it is much greater source of virtue if used properly. It is this virtuous use of the tongue that is being taught in these two Ahâdith. Salâm is a unique gift of Islâm. A Muslim prays for the safety of the one whom he meets at the very outset of his meeting with him. The other person also wishes the same for him and as such their meeting starts in most cordial atmosphere. When you wish good for someone it is most unlikely that you will harm him later. Similarly when someone invites you for feast etc., you usually develop friendship and love for him in your heart. So, both these things i.e., Salâm and invitation go a long way in creating harmony in the society. Islâm has used most successfully its golden principles for creating true brotherhood among the masses. Others communities only display these brotherly etiquettes but Islâm has done it practically. Islâm has made wishing of Salâm to other Muslim brethren one of its important symbols. It instructs the Muslims to wish all Muslim brethren, whether they know them or not. It is said in a Hadith that one of the signs of approaching of the Qiyâmah is that Salâm will be wished to only known people.

Allâh Ta'âlâ says in the Qur'ân:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَدْخُلُوا بُيُوتًا غَيْرَ بُيُوتِكُمْ حَتَّى تَسْتَأْنِسُوا وَتُسَلِّمُوا عَلَى أَهْلِهَا ذَلِكُمْ خَيْرٌ لَكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَذَكَّرُونَ ()

"O you who believe! Enter not houses other than your own, until you have asked permission and greeted (i.e., wished Salâm) those in them: that is best for you, in order that you may heed (what is seemly). (24:27)

Salâm is the word of greeting used by Allâh

سَلَامٌ قَوْلًا مِنْ رَبٍّ رَحِيمٍ ()

"(It will be said to them): Salâm (peace be on you) - a Word from the Lord (Allah), Most Merciful" (36:58)

Greeting of the people of Jannah will also be Salâm

وَتَحِيَّتُهُمْ فِيهَا سَلَامٌ

" And Salâm (peace) will be their greetings therein." (10:10)

Greeting of the Angels is also Salâm

In a Hadith it is said that Rasulullah told Hadhrat Aisha (RA),

هذا جبريل يقرأ عليك سلام

"it is Hadhrat Jibra'eel ,who says Salâm to you."

باب - مِنَ الإِيمَانِ أنْ يُحِبَّ لإِخِيهِ مَا يُحِبُّ لِنَفْسِهِ

Chapter (Bâb) 7: It is (quality of) Imân to like for your bother what you like for yourself"

Hadith No. 12

حدّثنا ( مُسَدَّد ) ٌ قالَ حدّثنا ( يَحْيَى ) عَنْ ( شُعْبَة ) َ عَنْ ( قَتَادَة ) َ عَنْ ( أنَس ) ٍ رضي الله عنه عَنِ النَّبِيِّ وَعَنْ ( حُسَيْنٍ المُعلّم ) ِ قال حدثنا ( قَتادَة ) ُ عَنْ ( أنَس ) َ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ قالَ لاَ يُؤْمَنُ أحَدُكُمْ حَتَّى يُحِبَّ لأَخِيهِ مَا يُحِبُّ لِنَفْسِهِ

Narrated Anas

The Prophet said, "None of you will have faith till he wishes for his (Muslim) brother what he likes for himself."

Narrator-Hadhrat Anas bin Mâlik

Hadhrat Anas served Rasulullah for ten years. His mother Ummi Sulaim requested Rasulullah for Dua for him. Rasulullah made Dua in favour of Hadhrat Anas for blessings in wealth, age and children. Hadhrat Anas lived for more than 100 years and was the last Sahâbi to die in 93 Hijrah at Basra. The effect of Dua in favour of wealth was that his orchard used to yield the fruits twice in a single year. One thousand two hundred and eighty six Ahâdith have been quoted from him, out of which one hundred and sixty eight are in Bukhari and Muslim (Mutafaqun Alaihi).

Tarjamatul Bâb

Imâm Bukhari gradually leads a believer towards higher grades of Imân. After mentioning the fundamentals of Imân, he mentions the related things of Imân which include, refraining from immoral use of hand and tongue, greeting with Salâm and inviting one's Muslim brethren to feast etc. Now he selects a Hadith in which a believer is told that it is not enough for him to do good to others by tongue or hand and invite them to feast, but a believer has to move further up towards higher grades of Imân that involve wishing for others what one wishes for himself.

Comments

It is the highest grade of sincerity that one wishes for others what he wishes for himself. It is self-evident as to what degree of sincere, selfless, harmless and amicable society Islâm instructs to create. Islâm not only motivates a man for this sincerity but has made it a part of faith. Wishing good to others is considered as worship in Islâm. It is the beauty of Islâm that it does not keep worship confined to the mosque but involves all that what is necessary for building an ideal society in its circumference. Islâm has been highly instrumental and successful in creating the strong bond of brotherhood amongst the masses. We know that selfishness, cunningness and jealousy are the root causes of many evils in a society. Islâm cuts the very roots of these bestial instincts. Islâm teaches its believers to develop selflessness and sincerity for others and not jealousy and cunningness. It is a great human moral of a very high standard by any means, to wish for others what one wishes for himself.

None of you is a believer

Does this mean that anyone who does not wish for others what he wishes for himself is not a Muslim? The answer is that although he is a Muslim, but his Imân is of very low grade. For acquiring high grade of Imân, it is must to have this moral.

How and what to wish for others

One should always think, had he been in that particular position in which he finds his brother, what would he had liked for himself, irrespective of the fact whether the matter is regarding to this world or next. Keeping this notion in mind one is always expected to like for others what he likes for himself.

Here a question arises that If one likes prohibited things like wine, gambling etc for himself, should he like same for others? The answer to this question is given another Hadith which is mentioned in Nasai Sharief , which says:

لا يؤمن أحدكم حتى يحب لأخيه ما يحب لنفسه من الخير

"None of you will have faith till he wishes for his (Muslim) brother what he likes for himself from good things ."

So to wish bad for others is automatically ruled out.

Islâm believes in eradication of jealousy from the society

Jealous people are always eager to see others in loss and agony. To prevail over this dreaded disease i.e., jealousy, wishing betterment for others is its treatment.

Always provide better advice to others

Whenever some one seeks your advice in any matter, always provide him with better advice, thinking that if I would have been in that position what would have I liked for myself.

باب - حُبُّ الرَّسولِ مِنَ الإِيمَانِ

Chapter (Bâb) 8 - To love Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) is a part of Imân

Hadith No. 13

حدّثنا ( أبُو اليَمان ) ِ قالَ أخْبَرَنَا ( شُعَيْب ) ٌ قالَ حدثنا ( أبُو الزِّناد ) ِ عَنِ ( الأَعْرَج ) ِ عَنْ ( أبِي هُرَيْرَة ) َ رضي الله عنه أنَّ رسول الله قالَ فَوَالَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ لاَ يُؤْمِنُ أحَدُكُمْ حتَّى أكُونَ أحَبَّ إليهِ مِنْ والِدِهِ وَوَلَدِهِ

Narrated Abu Hurairah (RA)

Rasulullah said, "By Him in Whose Hands my life is, none of you will have faith till he loves me more than his father and children."

Hadith No.14

حدّثنا ( يعَقُوبُ بْنُ إبْرَاهِيم ) قال حدثنا ( ابْنُ عُلَيَّة ) َ عَنْ ( عَبْدِ العَزِيزِ بْنِ صُهَيْب ) ٍ عَنْ ( أنَس ) ٍ عَن النَّبي ح وحدثنا ( آدَم) ُ قال حدثنا ( شُعْبَة ) ُ عَنْ ( قَتَادَة ) َ عَنْ ( أنِس ) ٍ قالَ قالَ النَّبي لاَ يُؤْمِنُ أحَدُكُمْ حَتَّى أكُونَ أحَبَّ إلَيْهِ مِنْ وَالِدِهِ وَوَلَدِهِ والنَّاسِ أجْمَعِينَ

Narrated Anas (RA)

The Prophet said "None of you will have faith till he loves me more than his father, his children and all mankind."

Tarjamatul Bâb

In previous Bâb Imâm Bukhari got the wordsمن الإيمان first and in this Bâb he got them at the end, this is the great skill of Imâm Bukhari. He first substantiated that one should refrain from teasing people, then one should try to create harmony and brotherhood in the society and after that one should develop sincerity for his fellow beings. After attaining all these things one gets promoted to higher grade of Imân but to attain further heights, one needs to love Rasulullah more than one's own self. The centre of real Love is Allâhu Ta'âlâ as He is the true Creator, Nourisher and Cherisher of mankind. After Allâhu Ta'âlâ, if anyone deserves love that is the soul of Rasulullah, as he is the unparalleled benefactor of humanity in the whole universe.

بعد از خدا بزرگ توئی قصہ مختصر

Comments

Imâm Bukhari has selected here two Ahâdith, one narrated by Abu Hurairah and other from Hadhrat Anas with similar words except that latter narration contains some additional words. The words of the Hadith are:

لاَ يُؤْمِنُ أحَدُكُمْ حَتَّى أكُونَ أحَبَّ إلَيْهِ مِنْ وَالِدِهِ وَوَلَدِهِ والنَّاسِ أجْمَعِينَ

"By Him in Whose Hands my life is, none of you will have faith till he loves me more than his father and children and the whole mankind"

Why Rasulullah took an oath?

An oath is an invocation of the name of Allâh or of some person or object held sacred by the person using the invocation in order to witness the truth of a solemn affirmation and to emphasize that affirmation.

Rasulullah made this statement while taking an oath for two reasons, one, to show the importance of the matter and secondly, since it is natural that a person loves his own self, his family and his wealth, therefore, in order to make him understand that he ought to love Rasulullah more than his own self, his family and his wealth, needed much emphasis.

What is Muhabbat (Love)?

Imâm Râgib has defined Muhabbat (Love) as:

إرادة ما تراه أو تزنه خيرا

"To intend that thing you think is good".

Types of Muhabbat (Love)

1. Natural love (Hubbi-Tab'ee-حب طبعي)

Man by his inner nature feels love for himself, his children and wealth etc., it is called Hubbi Taba'ee. It is involuntary.

2. Beneficial love (Hubbi-Ahsâni-حب أحساني)

It is said:

ألإنسان عبد الإحسان

"Man is the slave of good (behaviour)".

If anyone does some favour to someone, he always remembers this favour and always tries to love and respect him. It is voluntary type of love.

3. Love based on beauty (Hubbi Jamâli-حب جمالي)

Another reason for loving someone is because of the beauty of that person or thing. One usually loves beautiful things. This love is also voluntary.

4.Love based on excellence (Hubbi-Kamâli-حب كمالي)

Another reason for loving someone is because of the excellence found in that person or thing. One usually respects the people owing some excellence. This love is also voluntary.

5. Love based on reasoning (Hubbi-Aqli-حب عقلي):

Another type of love is based on reasoning. One loves those whom he thinks are helpful for him and hates those whom he thinks can cause him harm. One loves his doctor because he knows that the doctor is helping him, although the doctor treats him with bitter medicines or painful injections.

What type of love is meant in this Hadith

Qadhi Baidhawi says that here Hubbi-Aqli (Love based on reasoning) is meant while as Imâm Khattâbi is of the opinion that here voluntary love is meant. In fact Rasulullah deserves all types of love. He deserves Hubbi-Ahsâni, because we cannot count favours done by him for the benefit of humanity. He stands at number one with distinction in the history of whole mankind who has done maximum good to it. Even non-Muslims accept the fact that he has been a great benefactor of humanity. The beauty and excellences of Rasulullah are unparallel. So if anyone deserves love on these accounts, he can be none other than Rasulullah. Logic and rationality will always demand that the true love should be reserved for Rasulullah, even if it is against one's own self (Nafsi Ammarah). Sensible people will always acknowledge that their absolute benefit is in following Rasulullah sincerely. In nutshell, Rasulullah deserves all types of love.

Incident of Abdullah bin Zaid bin Abd Rabâ

Abdullah bin Zaid was a Sahâbi, one day while he was working in his field, his son informed him that Rasulullah has passed away, he immediately raised his hands for Dua and said, "Oh, Allâh please take away the light of my eyes who used to see Rasulullah, as I don't want to see any other thing with these eyes after my friend (Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam)." Allâh accepted his Dua and he immediately got blind.

Incident of a Sahâbi woman

There was a lady from Madinah whose husband, brother and father died in the battle of Uhud. When she was informed about their death, ignoring this she enquired about the safety of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam). When she was informed about his welfare, she made a wonderful statement:

كل مصيبة بعدك جلل

"Every disaster next to you (Rasulullah) is insubstantial".

After reading these incidents one can easily imagine the degree of love Sahâbah had for Rasulullah. Allâmah Qastalâni says that it is Hubi-Imâni (Love based on Imân), that is demanded from a Muslim. Allâhu Ta'âlâ says in the Qur'an:

قُلْ إِنْ كَانَ آبَاؤُكُمْ وَأَبْنَاؤُكُمْ وَإِخْوَانُكُمْ وَأَزْوَاجُكُمْ وَعَشِيرَتُكُمْ وَأَمْوَالٌ اقْتَرَفْتُمُوهَا وَتِجَارَةٌ تَخْشَوْنَ كَسَادَهَا وَمَسَاكِنُ تَرْضَوْنَهَا أَحَبَّ إِلَيْكُمْ مِنَ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَجِهَادٍ فِي سَبِيلِهِ فَتَرَبَّصُوا حَتَّى يَأْتِيَ اللَّهُ بِأَمْرِهِ وَاللَّهُ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الْفَاسِقِينَ ()

"Say: If it be that your fathers, your sons, your brothers, your mates or your kindred, the wealth that ye have gained, the commerce in which ye fear a decline or the dwellings in which ye delight are dearer to you than Allâh or His Messenger or the striving in His cause, then wait until Allâh brings about His decision and Allâh guides not the rebellious." (9:24)

Incident of Hadhrat Umar (RA)

On hearing this Hadith Hadhrat Umar (RA) told Rasulullah that he loved him more than anything else except his own self. Rasulullah said to Hadhrat Umar (RA) that he could not be (perfect) Muslim unless and until he loved him more than his own self. Hadhrat Umar (RA) immediately said that now he loved him more than his own self.

Ulema say that Hadhrat Umar (RA) already loved Rasulullah more than his own self but he was not aware of it. When Rasulullah pointed towards his weakness, he immediately realised that he was always ready to sacrifice his life for Rasulullah and readily exclaimed that he loved him more than his own self.