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Kitabul Imaan - Chapter 35 - 43 (Hadith 45 - 57)

 
Chapter No.: 
 6

باب - الزَّكاةُ مِنَ الإسْلاَمِ وقَوْلُه ومَا أُمِرُوا إلاَّ لِيَعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ مُخْلِصِينَ لَهُ الدِّينَ حُنَفَاءَ ويُقِيمُوا الصَّلاَةَ ويُؤْتُوا الزَّكاةَ وذَلِكَ دِينُ القيمةِ

Chapter (Bâb) 35 : To pay Zakâh is part of Islâm, and the saying of Allâh, "And they have been commanded no more than this: to worship Allâh offering Him sincere devotion being True (in faith); to establish regular Prayer; and to practice regular Charity; and that is the Religion Right and Straight". (98:5)

Purpose of Tarjamatul Bâb

Earlier on Imâm Bukhari mentioned about things like Salâh and Jihâd and now he mentions about Zakâh.

Hadith No. 45

حدّثنا ( إسْماعِيل ) ُ قال حدّثني مالِكُ بْنُ أنَسٍ عَنْ عَمِّهِ أبي سُهَيْلٍ بْنِ مالِكَ عَنْ أبِيهِ أَنَّهُ سَمِعَ طَلْحَةَ بْنَ عُبَيْدِ اللَّهِ يَقُولُ جاءَ رَجُلٌ إلى رسول الله مِنْ أهْلِ نَجْدٍ ثائِرُ الرَّأسِ يُسْمَعُ دَوِيُّ صَوْتِهِ ولاَ يُفْقَهُ ما يقُولُ حَتَّى دَنا فإذَا هوَ يَسْأَلُ عَنِ الإسْلاَمِ فقال رسول الله خَمْسُ صَلَواتٍ في اليَوْمِ واللَّيُلَةِ فقال هَلْ عَليَّ غَيْرُها قال لا إلا أنْ تَطَّوَّعَ قال رسول الله وصِيَامُ رَمَضانَ قال هَلْ عَليَّ غَيْرُهُ قال لاَ إلاَّ أنْ تَطَّوَّع قَال وذَكرَ لَهُ رسولُ اللَّهِ الزَّكاةَ قال هَلْ عَليَّ غَيْرُهَا قالَ لاَ إلاَّ أنْ تَطَّوَّعَ قالَ فأدْبَرَ الرَّجُلُ وهوَ يَقُولُ واللَّهِ لاَ أزِيدُ عَلَى هَذَا ولاَ أنْقُصُ قال رسولُ اللَّهِ أفْلَحَ إنْ صَدَقَ

Narrated by Talha bin Ubaidullah

A man from Najd with unkempt hair came to Allâh's Apostle and we heard his loud voice but could not understand what he was saying, till he came near and then we came to know that he was asking about Islâm. Allâh's Apostle said, "You have to offer prayers exactly five times in a day and night (i.e., 24 hours)." The man asked, "Is there any more (praying)?" Allâh's Apostle replied, "No, but if you want to offer the Nawâfil prayers (you can)." Allâh's Apostle further said to him: "You have to observe fasts during the month of Ramadan." The man asked, "Is there any more fasting?" Allâh's Apostle replied, "No, but if you want to observe the Nawâfil fasts (you can.)" Then Allâh's Apostle further said to him, "You have to pay the Zakâh (obligatory charity)." The man asked, "Is there any thing other than the Zakâh for me to pay?" Allâh's Apostle replied, "No, unless you want to give alms of your own." And then that man retreated saying, "By Allâh! I will neither do less nor more than this." Allâh's Apostle said, "If what he said is true, then he will be successful (i.e. he will be granted Paradise)."

Comments

Since other things mentioned in this Hadith like Salâh etc. have already been mentioned, Imâm Bukhari has highlighted only Zakâh in this Hadith.

باب - إتّباعُ الْجَنائِزِ مِنَ الإِيمَان

Chapter (Bâb) 36: To accompany the funeral procession (up to the place of burial) is a part of faith

Purpose of Tarjamatul Bâb

Ibn Hajar says that Imâm Bukhari has ended the list of titles of his chapters related to the parts of faith like Salâh, Zakâh etc. with this chapter of funeral procession as funeral comes last in man's life, so has he got it last.

Hadith No. 46

حدّثنا ( أحْمَدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ المَنْجُوفِي ) ُّ قال حّدثنا ( رَوْح ) ٌ قال حدّثنا ( عَوْف ) ٌ عَنِ ( الْحَسَنِ ومُحمَّد ) ٍ عَنْ ( أبى هُريْرَة ) َ أنّ رسولَ الله ( ) قالَ مَنِ اتَّبَعَ جَنَازَةَ مُسْلِمٍ إيمَاناً واحْتِساباً وكانَ مَعَهُ حتَّى يُصَلَّى عَلَيْها وُيفْرَغَ مِنْ دَفْنِهَا فانَّهُ يَرْجِعُ مِنَ الأَجْرِ بِقِيرَاطْينِ كُلُّ قيرَاطٍ مِثْلُ أُحُدٍ ومَنْ صَلَّى علَيْهَا ثُمَّ رجَعَ قَبْلَ أنْ تُدْفَنَ فإِنَّهُ يَرْجِعُ بِقِيرَاطٍ تابَعَهُ عُثْمانُ المُؤَذِّنُ قال حدّثنا عَوْفٌ عَنْ مُحمَّدٍ عَنْ أبى هُرَيْرَةَ عَنِ النَّبى نَحْوَهُ

Narrated by Hadhrat Abu Hurairah (RA)

Allâh's Apostle (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) said, "(A believer) who accompanies the funeral procession of a Muslim out of sincere faith and hoping to attain Allâh's reward and remains with it till the funeral prayer is offered and the burial ceremonies are over, he will return with a reward of two Qirats. Each Qirat is like the size of the (Mount) Uhud. He who offers the funeral prayer only and returns before the burial, will return with the reward of one Qirat only."

Comments

Allâh's Apostle said, "(A believer) who accompanies the funeral procession of a Muslim out of sincere faith and hoping to attain Allâh's reward and remains with it till the funeral prayer is offered and the burial ceremonies are over, he will return with a reward of two Qirats. Here the word Ahtesâb (احتساب) is used with Imân, it is said that one should follow the funeral with Ahtesâb i.e., while following the funeral one should think over the reality of life and its end and try to derive lessons for oneself. It is this type of following the funeral which is promised this reward of two Qirats. By following the funeral one should get reminded of death and its consequences and should try to prepare one's self for the same.

بابُ - خَوْفِ ألمُؤمِنِ مِنْ أنْ يَحْبَطَ عَملُهُ لاَ يَشْعُرُ وقال إبْراهِيمُ التَّيْمِىُّ ما عَرَضْتُ قَوْلِي علي عَمَلي إلاَّ خَشِيتُ أن أكُونَ مُكَذِّباًوقالابنُ أَبي مُلَيْكَةَ أَدْرَكْت ثَلاَثِينَ مِنْ أصْحابِ النَّبىِّ كُلُّهُمْ يَخَافُ النِّفَاقَ على نَفْسِهِ ما مِنْهُمْ أحدٌ يَقُولُ إنَّهُ على إيمانِ جِبْرِيلَ ومِيكائِيلَ ويُذْكَرُ عن الَحسَنِ ما خافَهُ إلاَّ مُؤْمِنٌ ولا أمِنَهُ إلاَّ مُنافِقٌ وما يُحْذَرُ مِن الإصْرَار على النِّفَاقِ والعِصْيان مِنِ غَيْرِ تَوْبَةٍ لِقَولِ اللّهِ تعالى ولَمْ يُصِرُّوا على ما فَعَلُوا وهُمْ يَعْلَمُونَ

Chapter (Bâb) 37: Fear of the believer that his good deeds may be destroyed without his knowledge. And Ibrahim Taymi said, "Whenever I compare my words with my deeds, I always fear that I many be liar". And Ibn Mulaika said, "I met thirty companions of Prophet (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) and every one of them feared having hypocrisy in themselves, and none of them said that they had faith of same degree as that of angel Jibra'eel or Meeka'eel. It was mentioned that al-Hasan (al-Bisri) said, "only believers fear hypocrisy and only hypocrites feel safe from it". And in this chapter those things are also mentioned from which one is being warned like infighting and persistence on sins without repentance (Toabah), as Allâh says, "And are never obstinate in persisting knowingly in (the wrong) they have done". (3:135)

Purpose of Tarjamatul Bâb

After finishing the things related to faith or Imân, Imâm Bukhari got this chapter in which he wants to tell the believers that they should not feel safe after having faith but they should always keep in mind that only that faith is valid and useful which one can carry along after one's death. Sometimes a believer says something unknowingly which begets the wrath of Allâh and his faith is snatched from him and he even does not come to know that. So a believer should always avoid those things which are harmful for Imân and should try to do as many good deeds as possible in order to strengthen his Imân.

Ibrahim Taymi was a pious man who used to say that whenever he says something he fears that people may refute him as they may not find his deeds matching his words. Ibn Mulaika says that he met thirty Sahâbah who feared that they were hypocrites and that he has not seen anyone saying that his Imân is like that of Jibra'eel (AS) or Meeka'eel (AS). This last part of the sentence i.e., "That he has not seen anyone saying that his Imân is like that of Jibra'eel (AS) or Meeka'eel (AS) seems to be for contradiction of Imâm Abu Haniefah who is reported to have said so. Ulema have given different explanations of this statement of Abu Haniefah.

Hadith No. 47

حدّثنا ( مُحَمَّدُ بنُ عَرْعَرَة ) َ قال (حدّثنا شُعْبَة) ُ عن (زُبَيْد) ٍ قال سألت أبا وَائِلٍ عنِ المُرجِئَة فقال حدّثني عبدُ اللّهِ أن النَّبِىَّ قال سِبَابُ المُسْلِم فسُوُقٌ وَقِتالُهُ كُفْرٌ

Narrated by Hadhrat Abdullah (RA)

The Prophet (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) said, "Abusing a Muslim is Fusuq (an evil doing) and killing him is Kufr (disbelief)".

Comments

Abu Wayil (RA) says that Abdullah bin Mas'ood told him a Hadith in which Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) said that abusing a Muslim is Fisq (debauchery) and to quarrel with him is Kufr (infidelity).

Fisq literally means "debauchery, dissipate", but in Islamic Shariah Fisq means "disobedience, leave Allah's command and to get out of true path i.e., Shariah". Quarrelling with a fellow Muslim has been equated with Kurf in this Hadith so as to show the gravity of its sinfulness. Ulema say that it does not take one out of the fold of Islam but is a grave sin.

Hadith No. 48

أخبرنا قتيبة بن سعيد حدثنا إسماعيل بن جعفر عن حميد عن أنس قال أخبرني عبادة بن الصامت أن رسول الله خرج يعتبر بليلة القدر وفتلاحى رجلان من المسلمين فقال إني خرجت لاخبر كم بليلة القدر وإنه تلاحى فلان وفلان فرفعت وعسى أن يكون خيراً لكم التمسوها في السبع والخمس

Narrated 'Ubada bin As-Samit

"Allâh's Apostle went out to inform the people about the (date of the) night of decree (Al-Qadr) but there happened a quarrel between two Muslim men. The Prophet said, "I came out to inform you about (the date of) the night of Al-Qadr, but as so and so and so and so quarreled, its knowledge was taken away (I forgot it) and may be it was better for you. Now look for it in the 7th, the 9th and the 5th (of the last 10 nights of the month of Ramadan)".

Comments

One day Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) came out to inform people about Lailatul Qadr. There in Masjid-i-Nabwi, two people were quarrelling with each other on some matter. While Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) got engaged in ending up quarrel between them, the exact information regarding the night on which Lailatul Qadr falls was lifted from his memory. This shows that quarrelling becomes a means which deprives one from many blessings and that too particularly when it takes place in a Masjid. Quarrelling in Masjid-i-Nabwi makes it all the more sinful. Ibn Dehya says that these two people were Ka'ab bin Maalik and Abdullah bin Abi Hadhrad who were quarrelling about some debt.

Afterwards, Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) said to the people, that there may be good in this for you not to know the exact night, so that you can now search for it. He said, you should search during the odd night of the last ten days of the month of Ramadhan.

باب - سُؤال جِبْريلَ النَّبيَّ عنِ الإيمانِ والإسْلامِ والإحْسانِ وعِلْمِ السَّاعةِ وبيَانِ النَّبِيِّ لَهُ ثم قال جاءَ جِبْرِيلُ عليهِ السلامُ يُعَلِّمُكمْ دِينَكُمْ فَجَعلَ ذلِكَ كُلَّهُ دِينا وما بَيَّنَ النَّبيُّ لِوَفْدِ عَبْدِ الْقَيْسِ مِنَ الإيمانِ وقَوْلِهِ تعالى ومَنْ يَبْتَغِ غَيْرَ الإسْلامِ دِينا فَلَنْ يُقْبَلَ مِنهُ

Chapter (Bâb) 38: Jibra'eel questioning about Imân, Islâm, Ahsân (benevolence) and the knowledge of the Hour (Dooms day) and clarifying these to Jibra'eel (AS) by him (i.e., Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam). Then Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) said (to his companions), "Jibra'eel (AS) had come to teach you your religion. "So the Prophet (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) regarded Allâh that as Deen. And all that Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) explained to the delegation of Abdul Qais was a part of Imân and Allâh's saying, "And whoever desires a religion other than Islâm, never will it be accepted of Him". (3:85)

Hadith No. 49

حدثنا مسدد قال حدثنا إسماعيل بن إبراهيم أخبرنا أبو حيان التيمي عن أبي زرعة عن أبي هريرة قال كان النبي بارزاً يوماً للناس فأتاه جبريل فقال ما الإيمان قال الإيمان أن تؤمن بالله وملائكته وبلقائه ورسله وتؤمن بالبعث قال الإسلام قال الإسلام أن تعبد الله ولا تشرك به وتقيم الصلاة وتؤدي الزكاة المفروضة وتصوم رمضان قال ما الإحسان قال أن تعبد الله كأنك تراه فإن لم تكن تراه فإنه يراك قال متى الساعة قال ما المسؤل عنها بأعلم من السائل وسأخبرك عن أشراطها إذا ولدت الأمة ربها وإذا تطاول رعاة الإبل البهم في البنيان في خمس لا يعلمهن إلا الله ثم تلا النبي إن الله عنده علم الساعة الآية ثم أدبر فقال ردوه فلم يروا شيئاً فقال هذا جبريل جاء يعلم الناس دينهم قال أبو عبد الله جعل ذلك كله من الإيمان

Hadith-i-Jibra'eel

Narrated by Abu Hurairah (RA)

One day while the Prophet (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) was sitting in the company of some people, (The angel) Gabriel (AS) came and asked, "What is faith?" Allâh's Apostle (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) replied, 'Faith is to believe in Allâh, His angels, (the) meeting with Him, His Apostles, and to believe in Resurrection." Then he further asked, "What is Islâm?" Allâh's Apostle replied, "To worship Allâh Alone and none else, to offer prayers perfectly to pay the compulsory charity (Zakâh) and to observe fasts during the month of Ramadan." Then he further asked, "What is Ahsân (perfection)?" Allâh's Apostle replied, "To worship Allâh as if you see Him, and if you cannot achieve this state of devotion then you must consider that He is looking at you." Then he further asked, "When will the Hour be established?" Allâh's Apostle replied, "The answerer has no better knowledge than the questioner. But I will inform you about its portents.

When a slave (lady) gives birth to her master.

When the shepherds of black camels start boasting and competing with others in the construction of higher buildings. And the Hour is one of five things which nobody knows except Allâh.

The Prophet then recited: "Verily, with Allâh (Alone) is the knowledge of the Hour--." (31:34) Then that man (Gabriel) left and the Prophet asked his companions to call him back, but they could not see him. Then the Prophet said, "That was Gabriel who came to teach the people their religion." Abu 'Abdullah said: He (the Prophet) considered all that as a part of faith.

Status of Hadith

This Hadith is called Hadith-i-Jibra'eel as it was Hadhrat Jibra'eel (AS) who was asking questions to Rasulullah (AS) in this Hadith. Qurtubi says that this Hadith should be called "Ummu-Sunnah" (Mother of all Ahâdith) in similar way as Surah Fatihah is called Ummul Qur'an. All other Ahâdith seem to be the explanation of this Hadith, same way as whole Qur'ân is said to be the explanation of Surah-al-Fatihah. All authentic authorities of Hadith agree upon the authenticity of this Hadith. Imâm Bukhari, Imâm Muslim and authors of other Hadith books have quoted this Hadith from different Sahâbah-al-Kirâm and author of Mishkât has quoted it from Hadhrat Umar ibn al-Khatâb (RA).

Purpose of Tarjamatul Bâb

By establishing this Bâb here Imâm Bukhari wants to convey that Islâm, Imân and Ahsân are synonymous and that these all constitute Deen as Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) told Sahâbah after Jibra'eel (AS) left and Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) labelled all these as Deen. Imâm Bukhari also substantiates his point by quoting the verse of the Qur'an which says:

ومَنْ يَبْتَغِ غَيْرَ الإسْلامِ دِينا فَلَنْ يُقْبَلَ مِنهُ

"If anyone desires a religion other than Islâm (submission to Allâh) never will it be accepted of him" (3:85)

Comments

There is consensus amongst Ulema that this incident took place in last part of the life of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam), most probably after Haja-tul-Widah (last Hajj of Rasulullah). It was during this last Hajj that the following verse of the Qur'an was revealed,

الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ وَأَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعْمَتِي وَرَضِيتُ لَكُمُ الْإِسْلَامَ دِينًا

"This day have I perfected your religion for you, completed my favor upon you and have chosen for you Islâm as your religion." (5:3)

As this verse says that the Deen i.e., Islâm has been perfected on that very day. Similarly this Hadith, which Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) stated during his last days, comprises of almost all aspects of Deen. Imân denotes all things related to beliefs, Islâm denotes all Ibâdât like Salâh, Saum and Zakâh etc. and Ahsân includes all things related to spiritual up-liftment with excellences what is called as Sulook.

Hadhrat Abu Hurairah (RA) says that one day they (companions of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) were sitting around Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) when a stranger came dressed in shinning white dress with jet black hair and there were no signs of travelling upon him. He was not a local as no Sahâbi recognised him, so he aught to have come from a far-off place either on foot or on camel (those days camel was the only means of transportation). Had he come on foot or on a camel, there would have been lot of dust on his clothes and hair and other signs of tiredness of long journey should have also been noticeable. When Sahâbah saw none of these things, they were surprised. Imâm Muslim, while narrating the background of this Hadith, says that once Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) asked the Sahâbah to ask questions but they could not dare to ask anything because of fear and then Hadhrat Jibra'eel (AS) appeared. Abu Dawood quotes that the stranger came to Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) when Sahâbah were sitting around by his side and while he was sitting on an elevated place of mud which the Sahâbah had constructed for him. Imâm Qurtubi derives a lesson from this that it is proper for an Aalim to sit on an elevated place for reverence. This stranger whom the Sahâbah could not recognise was Hadhrat Jibra'eel (AS) who had come in the form of a human being resembling one of the most handsome Sahahbi namely Dhahya-al-Kalbi (RA) as is reported in a narration quoted in Nasaee Sharief. Hadhrat Jibra'eel (AS) came in the form of a young man dressed in white clean clothes, from this Ulema have derived the lesson that

The young age is most suitable for learning.

The student should stick to the cleanliness and

That the white clothes are preferable.

It is reported in Musnad-al-Imâm-al-Azam on the authority of Hammad from Alqama from Ibn Mas'ood (RA) that Jibra'eel (AS) came in the form of a young man dressed in white clothes and said, As-salâm-u-Alikum Ya Rasulullah and Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) replied, Wa-Alaika-s-Salâm. From this Ulema have derived the lesson that an incomer can first greet Salâm to all those who are present and then can greet specific Salâm to someone calling him by name. After entering, Hadhrat Jibra'eel (AS) came near Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) and sat in front of him on knees as one sits in Tashahud in Salâh in such a way that his knees were touching the knees of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam). Ulema say that this is the best way of sitting for a student and helps in concentration and also shows his for learning.

Tell me about Imân

This was the first question that Hadhrat Jibraþeel (AS) asked Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam). In reply to this question Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) said:

الإيمان أن تؤمن بالله وملائكته وبلقائه ورسله وتؤمن بالبعث

"Faith is to believe in Allâh, His angels, (the) meeting with Him, His Apostles, and to believe in Resurrection."

This imperative sentence of Jibra'eel (AS) does not imply order but implies request. There is consensus amongst all Ulema that Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) is superior than angels and humans (Mirqat).

Belief in Allâh

It means to believe in Oneness and Uniqueness of Allâh Ta'âlâ both in His Essence and His Attributes. To believe in His Self Existence and that His Existence is not dependent upon the existence of any other thing whereas the existence of every other thing is dependent upon His Existence. Imân in Allâh means to acknowledge His bounties, His Mercy and the extreme excellence of all His attributes as is worth His Jalâl and Jamâl.

Different people have Imân of different grades. Common people recite the article of faith i.e., Kalimah by tongue while having faith in their hearts whereas the people possessing higher grade of Imân find themselves in the presence of Allâh thus forgetting the world and remain busy in preparation for Hereafter. Those people having even higher state of Imân, get so much enlightenment from Allâh that they even forget themselves and the dualism is lost to them.

Allâh is the name of Essence of Allâh, the other names like Ar-Rehmân, Ar-Rahim, Al-Gaffâr are the names of His Attributes. So, in His name i.e., Allâh-all His Attributes are also included i.e., when one calls Him by the name of Allâh, he is calling Him by all His Attributes. Allâh alone is worth worshipping, as He alone is the Creator of every creature. He has no partners, no children and no parents, there is none like unto Him. He knows everything and listens everything at the same time. To listen one thing does not make Him unable from listening others. Similarly, seeing one thing does not make Him incapable to see others. He is Omnipotent and does not need any advisers or helpers. He is beyond human comprehension. He is present everywhere but cannot be seen in this world. He has no beginning or end, everything other than Him has a beginning and an end. Nothing happens in this universe out of His Knowledge and Will. He created things from nothing. He says, ‘be' and it ‘becomes'. He is the Real Creator, Designer, Planner and Operator of the whole universe and what is beyond that. No slumber seizes Him nor sleep. Nothing is beyond His kingdom. He is nearer to man than his jugular veins.

His Attributes are also beyond our comprehension. When we say ‘Hand of Allâh', it does not mean something like our hands, similarly when we say He sees, listens or speaks, it does not mean that He has eyes, ears and tongue like ours, but these words are used only for our easy understanding otherwise nobody can comprehend their real meaning, as the way He is Unique in His Essence so is He in His Attributes. His Attributes cannot be compared with that of His creatures. As is the difference between the Creator and the creation, so is the difference between the Attributes of the Creator and the creation, e.g., difference between our seeing and listening and His seeing and listening.

Allâh is beyond time and space as these are created things. There is no present, past or future before Him, these are things for the creatures. One cannot attribute a particular direction to Him, as He is everywhere. It is not proper to attribute words like ascent or descent to Allâh. It is narrated in some traditions that Allâh descends to Aasman-i-Duniya (lowest heaven) during the last part of the night and also during Shabb-i-Qadr. By this descent it should not be understood that Allâh descends physically down as ascent and descent are not worth His Excellency. This word ‘descent' again is from Mutashabihât and Ulema say that by this word descent is meant that Allâh pays special attention towards the world.

Nothing can make him helpless or overpower him. Allâh Ta'âlâ says in Qur'ân:

اللَّهُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُمْ ثُمَّ رَزَقَكُمْ ثُمَّ يُمِيتُكُمْ ثُمَّ يُحْيِيكُمْ هَلْ مِنْ شُرَكَائِكُمْ مَنْ يَفْعَلُ مِنْ ذَلِكُمْ مِنْ شَيْءٍ سُبْحَانَهُ وَتَعَالَى عَمَّا يُشرِكُونَ

"It is Allâh Who has created you, further, He has provided for your sustenance; then He will cause you to die; and again He will give you life. Are there any of your (false) ‘partners' who can do any single one of these things? Glory to Him! and High is He above the partners they attribute (to Him)! (30:40)

وَمَا كَانَ اللَّهُ لِيُعْجِزَهُ مِنْ شَيْءٍ فِي السَّمَوَاتِ وَلَا فِي الْأَرْضِ إِنَّهُ كَانَ عَلِيمًا قَدِيرًا

"And Allâh is not to be frustrated by anything whatever in the heavens or on earth: for He is All-Knowing, All-Powerful.(35:44)

For accomplishing any task one needs two things, power to do that task and the knowledge; Allâh has both, hence can do anything and everything.

Our eyes can see material things only and our minds can understand those things only which are related to matter and can be felt. Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) said that Jannah is such a thing which no eye has seen, no ear has heard of and its idea has not passed through anybody's heart as to what it exactly looks like. When we cannot see or comprehend Jannah, which is material thing and also created one, how will we be able to see or comprehend Allâh who has no material body? Hadhrat Junaid Baghdâdi (RA) has well said: "Whatever idea come to your mind about the being of Allâh, think that He is not like that, as He cannot come in our minds and is above all these imaginations."

Allâh Ta'âlâ says:

لَا تُدْرِكُهُ الْأَبْصَارُ

"No vision can grasp Him" (6:103)

وَلَا يُحِيطُونَ بِهِ عِلْمًا

"And they shall not compass it with their knowledge" (20:110)

لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْءٌ وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْبَصِيرُ

"There is nothing whatever like unto Him, and He is the one that hears and sees" (42:11)

Nothing is like unto Him neither in essence nor in attributes, nor in deeds. His Knowledge is not like our knowledge, His seeing in not like our seeing, His listening is not like our listening. His being on throne is not like our being on throne, His laughing is not like our laughing and His power is not like our power. In short, there is nothing that can be compared with Him or can be given as an example.

Allâh is the Creator free of wants

Allâh Ta'âlâ says:

وَمَا خَلَقْتُ الْجِنَّ وَالْإِنْسَ إِلَّا لِيَعْبُدُونِ () مَا أُرِيدُ مِنْهُمْ مِنْ رِزْقٍ وَمَا أُرِيدُ أَنْ يُطْعِمُونِ () إِنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الرَّزَّاقُ ذُو الْقُوَّةِ الْمَتِينُ ()

"I have only created Jinns and men, that they may serve Me. No, sustenance do I require of them, nor do I require that they should feed me. For Allâh is He Who gives (all) sustenance, Lord of Power, Steadfast (forever).

أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ أَنْتُمُ الْفُقَرَاءُ إِلَى اللَّهِ وَاللَّهُ هُوَ الْغَنِيُّ الْحَمِيدُ

"O ye men! it is you that have need of Allâh: but Allâh is the One free of all wants, worthy of all praise" (35:15)

Allâh provides sustenance to all with utmost ease

إِنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الرَّزَّاقُ ذُو الْقُوَّةِ الْمَتِينُ

"For Allâh is He Who gives (all) sustenance, Lord or Power, Steadfast (forever) (51:58)

Allâh Destroys Without Fear

فَكَذَّبُوهُ فَعَقَرُوهَا فَدَمْدَمَ عَلَيْهِمْ رَبُّهُمْ بِذَنْبِهِمْ فَسَوَّاهَا () وَلَا يَخَافُ عُقْبَاهَا ()

"Then they rejected him (as a false prophet), and they hamstrung her. So, their Lord crushed them for their sins and leveled them. And for Him is no fear of its consequences." (91:14-15)

When creatures take some decision, they think of consequences that can be against them but Allâh being the Creator, can create at will and there can be no question of any such apprehension in His case.

Resurrection is Easy for Allâh

He says:

وَهُوَ الَّذِي يَبْدَأُ الْخَلْقَ ثُمَّ يُعِيدُهُ وَهُوَ أَهْوَنُ عَلَيْهِ وَلَهُ الْمَثَلُ الْأَعْلَى فِي السَّمَوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ ()

"It is He Who begins the creation; then repeats it; and for Him it is most easy, To Him belongs the loftiest similitude (we can think of) in the heavens and the earth; for He is Exalted in Might, full of Wisdom" (30:27)

In the first instance Allâh created every creature from nothing, when He can create everything from nothing, then how can it be difficult for Him to give life again to dead ones.

لِيُنْفِقْ ذُو سَعَةٍ مِنْ سَعَتِهِ وَمَنْ قُدِرَ عَلَيْهِ رِزْقُهُ فَلْيُنْفِقْ مِمَّا آتَاهُ اللَّهُ لَا يُكَلِّفُ اللَّهُ نَفْسًا إِلَّا مَا آتَاهَا سَيَجْعَلُ اللَّهُ بَعْدَ عُسْرٍ يُسْرًا ()

"The unbelievers think that they will not be Raised up (for Judgement), say: "Yes, by my Lord, you shall surely be raised up: then shall you be told (the truth) of all that you did. And that is easy for Allâh" (64:7)

Allâh is Qadeem so are His Attributes

Qadeem means without beginning, as His Essence is Qadeem so are His Attributes. His Attributes cannot be separated from His Essence. He was Creator (Khâliq) even before creating anything. Act of creation did not add anything to His Essence or Attributes. He will remain Creator even after the creation is no more there. He did not become Creator after creating the creations. He was Creator before that as well. When He created or creates anything, at that time He is active Creator whereas before creating, He was potential Creator. A writer remains a writer even when he is not writing. When he is not writing, he possesses the potential or ability to write, so does not cease to be a writer. Similar is the case with all other attributes of Allâh like seeing (Baseer), Listening (Samee) and Knowing (Aleem) etc. These all Attributes were with Him always even before creating the creation and there will be no loss in them even after the creations will remain no more.

Belief in angels

Malaikah or angels are very fine creation of Allâh created from Noor (light). They are not visible to ordinarily naked eye and they also have the power to adopt different shapes. They have no evil instincts, hence cannot do any evil. They always obey the Divine Commands. They have no gender, we have to believe in their existence and not attribute any sex to them. They are innumerable and their number is known to Allâh only. Names of four senior angels viz., Jibra'eel, Meeka'eel, Israfeel and Izraeel (AS) are famous and the rest of the angles are to be believed in general. Angels are honourable creatures who are always busy in carrying out the duties which Allâh has decreed upon them. They never disobey Allâh.

Hadhrat Jibra'eel (AS) brought the laws of Allâh Ta'âlâ to the Rusul (Messengers) through the medium of Divine Revelation. He was sometimes sent by Allâh to assist the Ambiyâ fighting the enemies of Islâm. At times he was sent by Allâh to execute punishment to those who were disobedient to Allâh.

Hadhrat Meeka'eel (AS) is the angel appointed in charge of rains, weather and providence. There are many angels under his supervision, some responsible for rain, some for clouds, some for winds and some for sustenance etc. They all act in accordance to Allâh Ta'âlâ's Will and Commandments.

Hadhrat Israfeel (AS) is the angel whose task will be to sound the "Soor" or trumpet which will then lead to the destruction of the universe and the advent of Qiyâmah (dooms day).

Hadhrat Izra'eel (AS) is the angel of death commonly known as "Malakal-Maut". He is in charge of inflicting death to the various creations of Allâh Ta'âlâ. He also has many angels working under his supervision. Some angels are responsible for taking the souls of pious people while others are responsible for taking the souls of evil and disobedient people.

Amongst them are (كراماً كاتبين) ‘Kirâman Kâtibeen', the two angels who are posted with every human, one on each shoulder, from his birth up to death. The right one writes the good deeds and the left one writes the bad deeds of a person. Another special group of angels are those who hold the Throne. Every Muslim is accompanied by an angel who inspires in him ‘Hidâyat' (Guidance to do good). The angels called the Nakeer (نكير) and Munker (منكر) question a person in grave soon after his death.

Belief in His books

It means to believe in all the divine books which were sent down by Allâh to different prophets like Al-Qur'ân was to Prophet Muhammad (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam), Injeel to Hadhrat Eisâ (AS), Zaboor to Hadhrat Dawood (AS) and Torah to Hadhrat Musâ (AS). There are many other divine books, also called Suhuf, which were sent down to other Prophets but their exact number is not known. We believe in all of them with whatever their number had been. Belief in these books means that these books existed and were sent down by Allâh, hence were divine in nature, The Qur'ân revealed to Prophet Muhammad (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) is the last revealed book of Allâh and is the only divine book which is existing today in its original form without any addition or alteration and will remain in its original form up to the day of Judgement as Allâh Himself has guaranteed its safety. Allâh Ta'âlâ says:

إِنَّا نَحْنُ نَزَّلْنَا الذِّكْرَ وَإِنَّا لَهُ لَحَافِظُونَ

"We have, without doubt, sent down the Message; And We will assuredly guard it (from corruption)" (15:9)

The Qur'ân abrogated all earlier divine books, that means today we believe that all earlier books were divine but their commandments stand abrogated by the Qur'ân and now we have to follow the commandments of the Qur'ân only.

No divine book other than the Qur'ân is existing in its original form today as the safety of those books was not guaranteed by Allâh.

Some narrations have stated that the number of divine books revealed to different Prophets was one hundred and four, out of them ten Suhuf were sent to Hadhrat Adam (AS), fifty to Hadhrat Sheeth (AS), thirty to Hadhrat Idrees (AS), ten to Hadhrat Ibrahim (AS) and four above mentioned books and out of these Qur'ân is the last and the best. (Mirqat)

The Qur'ân

It is the Last Revelation sent down by Allâh to Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam). It is the Word of Allâh, hence it is His attribute i.e., it is not created but the attribute of the Creator. Both the words and meaning of the Qur'ân are from Allâh. Allâh Ta'âlâ says:

تِلْكَ آيَاتُ اللَّهِ نَتْلُوهَا عَلَيْكَ بِالْحَقِّ وَإِنَّكَ لَمِنَ الْمُرْسَلِينَ

These are the signs of Allâh: We rehearse them to thee in truth: verily thou art once of the Messengers" (2:252)

فَإِذَا قَرَأْنَاهُ فَاتَّبِعْ قُرْآنَهُ

"But when We have recited it, follow thou its recital (as promulgated)"(75:18)

Imâm Tahâwi says:

"Thus, the Qur'ân is the spoken word of Allâh except that we do not know how He speaks for His speech is not like our speech as His hearing is not like our hearing."

Allâh Ta'âlâ says:

وَمَا كَانَ لِبَشَرٍ أَنْ يُكَلِّمَهُ اللَّهُ إِلَّا وَحْيًا أَوْ مِنْ وَرَاءِ حِجَابٍ أَوْ يُرْسِلَ رَسُولًا فَيُوحِيَ بِإِذْنِهِ مَا يَشَاءُ إِنَّهُ عَلِيٌّ حَكِيمٌ

"It is not fitting for a man that Allâh should speak to him except by inspiration, or from behind a veil, or by sending of a Messenger to reveal, with Allâh's permission what Allâh wills: for He is Most High, Most Wise" (42:51)

This Aayat reveals that Allâh speaks through Wahy and that ‘Wahy' is His speech. Allâh Ta'âlâ says:

تَنْزِيلُ الْكِتَابِ مِنَ اللَّهِ الْعَزِيزِ الْحَكِيمِ

"The revelation of this Book is from Allâh, The Exalted in Power, Full of Wisdom." (39:1)

The origin of words of Qur'ân is from the essence of Allâh. What an excellent description by Imâm Abu Haniefah in Fiqh-Akbar:

ألقران المكتوب في المصاحف ألمحفوظ في القلوب ألمتلو بالسانة ألمنزل على الرسول ألالفاظ المتلوة حادثة لا القران

"The Qur'ân is written in books, safely stored in hearts, recited by tongues, has been revealed on the Prophet, the words with which we recite the Qur'ân are created and the Qur'ân is not created (Makhlooq).

Allâh Himself named the Qur'ân as the ‘Word of Allâh'

وَإِنْ أَحَدٌ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ اسْتَجَارَكَ فَأَجِرْهُ حَتَّى يَسْمَعَ كَلَامَ اللَّهِ ثُمَّ أَبْلِغْهُ مَأْمَنَهُ ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ قَوْمٌ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ

"If one amongst the pagans ask thee for asylum, grant it to him, so that he may hear the word of Allâh; and then escort him to where he can be secure, that is because they are men without knowledge."(9:6)

Imâm Tahâwi says that one who says that the Qur'ân is the word of a human being and not the word of Allâh, is a Kâfir (Infidel) as Allâh Himself calls it the ‘Word of Allâh' in the above mentioned Aayat.

Belief in Prophets sent by Allâh

It means to believe in all the Prophets which were sent by Allâh amongst whom Hadhrat Adam (AS) being the first and Hadhrat Muhammad (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) being the last prophet. Islâm enjoins us to believe that all these prophets existed and preached whatever Allâh revealed to them. There have been mentioned the names of only few prophets in Qur'ân and Hadith, Islâm enjoins us to believe in them with specificity and in the rest of them in general. The number and the names of all the Ambiyâ is not known. The names of a few famous Ambiyâ are given below:

Hadhrat Adam, Hadhrat Sheeth, Hadhrat Idrees, Hadhrat Nuh, Hadhrat Ibrahim, Hadhrat Isma'il, Hadhrat Ishâq, Hadhrat Yaqoob, Hadhrat Yusuf, Hadhrat Dawood, Hadhrat Sulaimân, Hadhrat Musâ, Hadhrat Haroon, Hadhrat Zakaria, Hadhrat Yahyâ, Hadhrat Ilyâs, Hadhrat Yunus, Hadhrat Loot, Hadhrat Sâleh, Hadhrat Hood, Hadhrat Shuaib, Hadhrat Eisâ (AS) and Hadhrat Muhammad Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam).

All prophets were Masoom (innocent or free from sins), that means a prophet cannot commit a sin because they are divinely protected against committing any sin.

There is consensus amongst the whole Ummah over the innocence of Prophets and this is an important branch of Imân. It is better not to attribute any fixed number to the total number of Prophets sent by Allâh. It is for this reason that Ulema say that it is better to say that I believe in all the Prophets sent by Allâh, whatever be their number.

Imâm Ahmad has quoted on the authority of Abu Ahamah that once Hadhrat Abu Dhar Gifâri (RA) asked Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) about the total number of Prophets, Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) said, "One Lakh and twenty-four thousand" .

The ranks of some Prophets are higher than that of others and our beloved Prophet Muhammad (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) is the noblest and the highest in rank amongst the Prophets of Allâh.

تِلْكَ الرُّسُلُ فَضَّلْنَا بَعْضَهُمْ عَلَى بَعْضٍ مِنْهُمْ مَنْ كَلَّمَ اللَّهُ وَرَفَعَ بَعْضَهُمْ دَرَجَاتٍ وَآتَيْنَا عِيسَى بْنَ مَرْيَمَ الْبَيِّنَاتِ وَأَيَّدْنَاهُ بِرُوحِ الْقُدُسِ وَلَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ مَا اقْتَتَلَ الَّذِينَ مِنْ بَعْدِهِمْ مِنْ بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَتْهُمُ الْبَيِّنَاتُ وَلَكِنِ اخْتَلَفُوا فَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ آمَنَ وَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ كَفَرَ وَلَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ مَا اقْتَتَلُوا وَلَكِنَّ اللَّهَ يَفْعَلُ مَا يُرِيدُ ()

Those Messengers We endowed with gifts, some above others: to some of them Allâh spoke; others He raised to degrees (of honour); To Jesus the son of Mary We gave clear (signs), and strengthened him with the Holy Spirit. If Allâh had so willed, succeeding generations would not have fought among each other, after clear (signs) had come to them but they (chose) to wrangle some believing and others rejecting. If Allâh had so willed, they would not have fought each other; but Allâh does what He wills. (2:253)

وَإِذْ أَخَذَ اللَّهُ مِيثَاقَ النَّبِيِّينَ لَمَا آتَيْتُكُمْ مِنْ كِتَابٍ وَحِكْمَةٍ ثُمَّ جَاءَكُمْ رَسُولٌ مُصَدِّقٌ لِمَا مَعَكُمْ لَتُؤْمِنُنَّ بِهِ وَلَتَنْصُرُنَّهُ قَالَ أَأَقْرَرْتُمْ وَأَخَذْتُمْ عَلَى ذَلِكُمْ إِصْرِي قَالُوا أَقْرَرْنَا قَالَ فَاشْهَدُوا وَأَنَا مَعَكُمْ مِنَ الشَّاهِدِينَ ()

Behold! Allâh took the covenant of the prophets, saying: "I give you a Book and Wisdom: then comes to you a Messenger, confirming what is with you; Do ye believe in him and render, him help". Allâh said: "Do you agree, and take this my covenant as binding on you?" They said: "We agree". He said: "Then bear witness, and I am with you among the witness." (3:81)

كُنْتُمْ خَيْرَ أُمَّةٍ أُخْرِجَتْ لِلنَّاسِ تَأْمُرُونَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَتَنْهَوْنَ عَنِ الْمُنْكَرِ وَتُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَلَوْ آمَنَ أَهْلُ الْكِتَابِ لَكَانَ خَيْرًا لَهُمْ مِنْهُمُ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ وَأَكْثَرُهُمُ الْفَاسِقُونَ ()

"Ye are the best of people, evolved for mankind. Enjoining what is right, forbidding what is wrong, and believing in Allâh. If only the people of the Book had faith, it were best for them: among them are some who have faith, but most of them are perverted transgressors." (3:110)

إِنَّا نَحْنُ نَزَّلْنَا الذِّكْرَ وَإِنَّا لَهُ لَحَافِظُونَ ()

We have, without doubt, sent down the Message; And We will assuredly guard it (from corruption). (15:9)

Prophethood of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam)

Prophet Muhammad (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) was sent for all people of all times. Prophethood was sealed upon him.

وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ إِلَّا كَافَّةً لِلنَّاسِ بَشِيرًا وَنَذِيرًا وَلَكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ النَّاسِ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ ()

"We have not sent thee but as a (Messenger) to all mankind, giving them glad tidings, and warning them (against sins), but most men know not." (34:28)

قُلْ يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنِّي رَسُولُ اللَّهِ إِلَيْكُمْ جَمِيعًا الَّذِي لَهُ مُلْكُ السَّمَوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا هُوَ يُحْيِي وَيُمِيتُ فَآمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ النَّبِيِّ الْأُمِّيِّ الَّذِي يُؤْمِنُ بِاللَّهِ وَكَلِمَاتِهِ وَاتَّبِعُوهُ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَهْتَدُونَ ()

"Say: O men! I am sent unto you all, as the Messenger of Allâh, to whom belongth the dominion of the heavens and the earth: there is no god but He: it is He that giveth both life and death. So believe in Allâh and His Messenger. The unlettered Prophet, who believeth in Allâh and His Words: follow him that (so) ye may be guided." (7:158)

تَبَارَكَ الَّذِي نَزَّلَ الْفُرْقَانَ عَلَى عَبْدِهِ لِيَكُونَ لِلْعَالَمِينَ نَذِيرًا ()

"Blessed is He Who sent down the criterion to His servant, that it may be an admonition to all creatures" (25:1)

قُلْ أُوحِيَ إِلَيَّ أَنَّهُ اسْتَمَعَ نَفَرٌ مِنَ الْجِنِّ فَقَالُوا إِنَّا سَمِعْنَا قُرْآنًا عَجَبًا ()

"Say: it has been revealed to me that a company of jinns listened ( to the Qur'ân) they said," We have really heard a wonderful recital." (72:1)

مَا كَانَ مُحَمَّدٌ أَبَا أَحَدٍ مِنْ رِجَالِكُمْ وَلَكِنْ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ وَخَاتَمَ النَّبِيِّينَ وَكَانَ

اللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمًا ()

"Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but (he is) the Messenger of Allâh, and the seal of the Prophets: and Allâh has full knowledge of all things." (33:40)

Prophethood (Nubuwat) is a gift of Allâh

Allâh chooses whomsoever He wills for this great task. It is not achieved by one's struggle and effort in His cause. Allâh Ta'âlâ says:

مَا يَوَدُّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ وَلَا الْمُشْرِكِينَ أَنْ يُنَزَّلَ عَلَيْكُمْ مِنْ خَيْرٍ مِنْ رَبِّكُمْ وَاللَّهُ يَخْتَصُّ بِرَحْمَتِهِ مَنْ يَشَاءُ وَاللَّهُ ذُو الْفَضْلِ الْعَظِيمِ ()

"It is never the wish of those without faith among the people of the book nor of the polytheists. That anything good should come down to you from your Lord. But Allâh will choose for His special Mercy whom He will-for Allâh is Lord of grace abounding." (2:105)

اللَّهُ يَصْطَفِي مِنَ الْمَلَائِكَةِ رُسُلًا وَمِنَ النَّاسِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ سَمِيعٌ بَصِيرٌ ()

"Allâh chooses Messengers from angels and from men for Allâh is He Who hears and sees (all things)." (22:75)

Belief concerning the resurrection

Along with the teachings of Tawheed (Oneness) and Risâlat (Prophethood) all the Ambiyâ (AS) were unanimous in their teaching regarding the concept of a physical Qiyâmah and a physical resurrection. Qiyâmah refers to the period which will follow the destruction of the present order of the universe. The entire universe as is known to us will come to an end. On this day, the stage for the affairs of reckoning will be set up. Man will be rewarded for his good deeds and punished for his evil actions.

The life hereafter has two stages

From death to resurrection known as "Aalam-i-Barzakh".

From resurrection to eternity known as "Aalam-i- Mah'shar.

The Qur'ân and Hadith inform us that man is sometimes punished during the time between death and resurrection. Death means the separation of the soul from the body. The soul is then transmitted to another world.

Question

Everyday many people die in different parts of the world. How is it possible for only two angels to question them at one and the same time?

Answer

Just as Hadhrat Izra'eel (AS) has many angels working under his supervision, similarly "Munkar and Nakeer" (AS) are a group of angels.

Tell me about Islâm

This was the second question of Hadhrat Jibra'eel (AS) to Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam).

Tawheed (Oneness of Allâh)

Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) once when asked about Islâm by Hadhrat Jibra'eel (AS) said that Islâm means to testify the article of faith, La-ilaha-il-lal-lah Muhammad-ur-Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) (لا إله إلا الله محمد رسول الله), which means that there is no god but Allâh and Muhammad (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) is His Messenger. First step in Islâm is ‘La' which means nothing i.e., first step in Islâm is to achieve the state of nothingness. There are some religions like Buddhism which talk of nothingness. They, after shunning away the world, meditate in solitude to achieve this state of nothingness but they achieve nothing except some illusive imaginations. On the other hand a Muslim has to achieve state of nothingness practically while living an active practical life. A Muslim, by way of this article of faith, believes very firmly that there is nothing but Allâh, He is the only being Who has His own existence and the existence of everything other than His, is dependent upon His existence. No one has any power, strength or existence of its own and whatever anything has, that has been given to it by Allâh. So a Muslim observes the hand of Allâh in the essence of everything and in every action. He sees that any deed performed by anyone is actually commanded by Allâh, so, he gets so much engrossed in the thought of Allâh that he thinks, he feels and he sees that there is none but Allâh. At this stage it is said that this Muslim is tasting the ‘Tawheed'. Imâm al-Ghâzali (RA) says that there are two outer kernels and two inner fruits of ‘Tawheed'. To utter the faith of article, the Kalimah, with the tongue is the outermost kernel and to have its firm faith in the heart is the next kernel. One fruit of Tawheed is that the secret of Tawheed gets manifest with the help of Divine Noor (illumination) to such an extent that such a person sees Allâh as the Ultimate cause of all actions that are taking place around him and sees His Ultimate Causative Hand in all the effects. The other inner fruit of Tawheed is that one does not appreciate existence of anything except that of Allâh and such a person gets engrossed in Allâh to such an extent that he forgets every other thing.

Imâm-al-Ghâzali (RA) gives an example of this as, there was a clean sheet of white paper and something was written on it with a black pen. Someone asked this sheet of paper as to what made your face black, you were just now clean white and now you look black. The paper replied that I was all done by ink and better ask the ink. The ink was asked as to why you blackened the face of white paper. Ink said, "I was at rest in my home (i.,e inkpot), the pen came and pierced my body and took me away from my home and then spread me on the paper. You better ask the pen. The pen was asked about the complaint of the ink. It replied, "I was at my home (i.e., tree), a hand came, brutally broke me away from my parent (tree) and skinned me off and cut my tongue with a sharp knife (the tip of wooden pen is cut in the centre). Now the same hand is making me to walk on the paper headlong. What is my fault, you better ask the hand." The hand was asked about the pen's complaint against it. The hand replied, "I was resting quietly and the will (Iradha) came and asked me to do it. I don't do anything unless commanded by will to do that. I am helpless, what is my fault, you better ask the will." The chain of these question - answers continues till it ends with Allâh Ta'âlâ. The person, who has been bestowed upon with the blessing of Tawheed (of higher degree), observes Allâh Ta'âlâ even in the ink which is being spread on a sheet of paper with a pen. Same way such a person observes Allâh Ta'âlâ as the Ultimate cause of every deed that is being executed by him or around him.

Fanâ and Baqâ

There comes a time when ‘I' (self) is lost in ‘He' (Allah). ‘I' no more remains there and there is only ‘He'. Sufis call it ‘Fanâ' and ‘Baqâ'. ‘Fanâ' means that ‘I' no more commands, that means - that such a person does not act as per the commands of ‘I'. ‘Baqâ' means that one acts as per the commands of ‘He' and not ‘I'. It does not mean that ‘I' is replaced by ‘He' in body and soul as some ignorant pseudo mystics believe, such a belief is Kufr (infidelity). It simply means that evil instincts of ‘I' or baser self get completely suppressed and it no longer incites for evil. These evil instincts are replaced by pious instincts and it becomes very easy for such a person to do good deeds, rather it becomes his nature to do good and to follow the commands of Shari'ah in letter and spirit.

Wahdat-ul-Wujud (Unity of Existence)

When it is said that nothing exists other than Allâh, ignorant people take it as if everything is god, so they worship everything, which is an evident Kufr. These people call it Wahdat-ul-Wujud (Unity of Existence); such an interpretation is totally wrong and unfounded. One may ask a question as to what is the meaning of ‘nothing exists other than Allâh'? Well, it means that nothing exists itself other than Allâh. The existence of every other thing is dependant upon the existence of Allâh and latter is not dependant on anything other than Himself. We see millions of stars in the sky during night, when sun rises in the morning, we see no stars. Where have they gone? They are very much there but in the presence of the sun they become invisible, though they do exist during day as well. Similarly, we can say that the existence of creatures becomes insignificant in the presence of the existence of Allâh, though all living creatures do have their existence. So, to say that creatures are actually creator is not correct.

Some saintly people sometimes experience a wonderful state in which they loose all demarcations of self and non-self and get absorbed in the Reality to such an extent that it becomes difficult for them to differentiate between the one who looks and the one who is looked upon. This state is a momentary state and does not last long. Such an experience is something extra-ordinary and cannot be described in words, only those who experience it can understand it, for others it is wastage of time to discuss such things.

Salâh

Establishment of Salâh is next to the article of faith i.e., Kalimah. After having firm faith in Allâh and His Messenger (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam), the next most important constituent of Islâm is the establishment of Salâh. Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) said in a Hadith that one who deliberately leaves Salâh, does an act of Kufr and that Salâh distinguishes a Muslim from a non-Muslim. Salâh is the most complete and the best form of worship one can think of. It involves all faculties viz., mental and spiritual for the act of worship in the real form. Best way of asking somebody about Mercy and Kindness is to stand in front of him quietly, nicely with folded hands and one may bow before him in reverence and extreme form of physical respect is shown by prostrating before him, placing one's head of pride on the ground. Since Islâm teaches that the only Helper, Merciful and Benevolent is Allâh, so it has banned from bowing in front of any other being other than Allâh. Islâm teaches that Allâh alone fulfills all needs from the smallest to the biggest, so a Muslim is asked to bow before Allâh only and this he does in Salâh, in the form of Qiyâm, Ruku and Sajdah. The contents of Salâh, the Qur'ân and other words which one is supposed to recite in Salâh, express greatness of Allâh, His countless bounties and gratefulness for the same with Tawheed (monotheism) and Ikhlas (sincerety) and in the remaining part the bondsman, the performer of Salâh, prays to Almighty Allâh with full respect from the core of his heart and asks His help and Mercy. The wording is such that it looks as if the bondsman is having a direct conversation with Almighty Allâh. It is for this reason that Salâh is called ‘Me'raj-ul-Mumineen'. In Me'raj Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) was taken up into the Heavens even above them where he got the highest nearness to Allâh and talked to Allâh at the closest range, it was at this moment that Allâh gave Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) Salâh as a gift for his Ummah, so that the Ummah can get nearness of Allâh and His pleasure in Salâh.

Aqeem-us-Salâh

Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) used the word ‘Aqeem-us-Salâh' which means to establish the Salâh and did not say to offer the Salâh. Ulema say that establishment of Salâh means to offer Salâh along with all its ideal conditions, for example, to offer Salâh in time with proper cleanliness of mind, soul, body, clothes and place. To offer Salâh slowly with grace and not in haste manner, and with presence of mind humility, with fear and love of Allâh and in Jama't (congregational) etc.

Zakâh

Third constituent of Islâm after Salâh is to pay Zakâh (poor tax). Every Muslim is supposed to pay two and a half percent of his/her yearly savings as poor tax if that exceeds the prescribed limit. Zakâh is an Arabic word which means purity, so this tax has been imposed on wealthy Muslims so that the rest of their wealth gets purified from the impurities of sins etc. The tax is so much less that it becomes very easy to pay. The main difference of Islâmic Tax of Zakâh and that of modern taxation is that former is on saving while the latter is on income. It is easy to pay from saving than from that income which has already been spent.

For those who strive for higher states of Imân, the word Zakâh means something more. For them it means to purify the exterior (Zâhir) and interior (Bâtin) by shunning away wealth and spending that for the pleasure of Allâh and to purify the Qalb from everything other than Allâh so that it can perceive the rays of Divine light.

Saum

Fourth constituent of Islâm is to observe fast (Saum), during the month of Ramadhan. It is obligatory for Muslims to observe fast from dawn to sunset for the whole month of Ramadhan every year. The benefits of Saum for the physical health are numerous which can be seen in the books written on this subject. It has immense spiritual benefits as well. It weakens the bestial instincts in man and strengthens in him the Angelic instincts. Man comes closer to the Angels and his Qalb begins appreciating the fine subtleties of nature. The one who observes fasts is very much loved by Allâh to the extent that Allâh has promised that He will Himself reward the doer of this act

Haj

The fifth constituent of Islâm which Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) stated in this Hadith is Haj. Hajj is obligatory once in a life time for those Muslims who can go to Makkah-al-Mukarramah either on foot, camel or horse etc or have enough money to arrange for other means of transportation, accommodation and meals and can support their dependants monetarily back home. Hajj is performed once in a year from 8th to 12th Zil-Hajj at Makkah-al-Mukarramah. The details can be seen from the various books on Haj.

What is Ahsân?

This was the third question asked by Jibra'eel (AS). Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) told him that Ahsân means to worship Allâh in such a way as if one is seeing Allâh and if one cannot do that then one should at least have this strong conviction that Allâh is seeing him all the time. It is only after getting this strong conviction that Allâh is seeing, one can worship the way it is desired by Allâh. Allâmah Shabir Uthmâni says that man is constituted of two parts, body and soul. If one exercises his body parts repeatedly his body parts become stronger and stronger, Similarly if one exercises his spiritual faculties repeatedly, his spiritual power becomes stronger and stronger. When one works on Imân and Islâm properly and regularly he gets spiritual upliftment by which it becomes easy for him to understand and act upon Islâm and Imân, and that is the state of Ahsân, so, to say that Ahsân is something different than Shari'ah is absolute ignorance.

Then he further asked, "When will the Hour be established?" Allâh's Apostle replied, "The answerer has no better knowledge than the questioner. But I will inform you about its portents.

When a slave (lady) gives birth to her master.

When the shepherds of black camels start boasting and competing with others in the construction of higher buildings. And the Hour is one of five things which nobody knows except Allâh.

The Prophet then recited:

إِنَّ اللَّهَ عِنْدَهُ عِلْمُ السَّاعَةِ

"Verily, with Allâh (Alone) is the knowledge of the Hour ......". (31: 34)

This was the fourth question of Jibra'eel ¡.

Beliefs concerning the signs of Qiyâmah

Allâh Ta'âlâ will command Hadhrat Israfeel (AS) to blow the trumpet-"Soor". The thunderous and destructive sound emitting from the Soor will destroy the entire universe. At the appointed time, forty years later Hadhrat Israfeel (AS) will again sound the Soor. The second sounding of the Soor will restore the creation to life. This restoration of life will be ‘The Day of Resurrection'.

The exact date of Qiyâmah is known only to Allâh Ta'âlâ. He has not revealed to anyone the actual date and day of Qiyâmah. There is also absolutely no way or means by which anyone can come to know about its time. However Allâh has informed His Ambiyâ (AS) about some signs and events that will appear before Qiyâmah.

Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) has mentioned some events and signs by means of which the proximity of Qiyâmah may be deduced. The signs of Qiyâmah are of two kinds.

The lesser signs

These are the events which will take place from the time of Rasulullah's (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) birth to the appearance of Imâm Mahdi. Amongst these the first sign is the honourable birth of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam).

Imâm Bukhari narrates a Hadith that Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) reported to have said:

"The following six things are most certainly to occur before Qiyâmah."

My demise.

Baitul Maqdis will be conquered.

A general plague.

Abundance of wealth.

A Fitnah (affliction) will appear and enter the house of every Arab (this affliction was the martyrdom of Hadhrat Uthmân (RA).

You will be in peace with the Christians, they will then deceive you and attack you with a force of eighty flags and with each flag will be an army of twelve thousand.

Similarly there are many more signs of Qiyâmah foretold by Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) in the Ahâdith,

Ignorance of Deen will increase greatly.

Knowledge of Deen will rapidly decrease.

Alcohol will be consumed in public.

Fornication will become rampant.

Shame and modesty will be eliminated.

Female population will increase.

Dancing, singing and musical instruments will become rampant.

Telling lies will be regarded as a profession.

People will disobey their mothers and regard their fathers as strangers while considering friends to be their close associates.

Children will be disobedient to mothers and subservient to their wife.

Immoral, evil and the worst in character will assume the reigns of power and government.

Public funds will be regarded as private property.

Oppression will become rampant.

People will desire death due to the evil and false practices that will become rampant.

The major signs

These are the events which will take place after the appearance of Imâm Mahdi to the sounding of the trumpet. These will appear when Qiyâmah will be very close.

The advent of Imâm Mahdi

Mahdi in Arabic means rightly guided. Many Mahdis (rightly guided people) have come and will continue to come. But the Mahdi whose mention is made in the Ahâdith will make his appearance very close to Qiyâmah as foretold by Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam). He will be from the progeny of Hadhrat Fatimah (RA). His name will be Muhammed (AS). His father's name Abdullah and his mother's name Aminah. He will very closely resemble Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam). He will be a tall person. He will have a bright and broad forehead, and will have a long high bridged nose. He will speak with a stutter. Sometimes due to difficulty in speech he will hit his hands on his thighs. His knowledge will be an inspiration from Allâh. He will be a resident of Madinah. He will appear at the age of forty in Makkah. The Ulema of Syria and Iraq will pledge allegiance to him. Mahdi will remove the treasures buried in the Ka'bah and distribute it amongst the Muslims. He will first rule over the Arabs and then the entire world will be under his leadership. He will restore peace and justice in the entire world. All his actions will be in accordance to the Shari'ah of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam). During his lifetime Dajjâl will also appear and Hadhrat Esa (AS) will descend from the heaven and alight on the eastern minaret of the Jama-i-Masjid of Damascus and will perform his Salâh behind Imâm Mahdi (RA). In the same year during the month of Ramadhan there will be two eclipses. An eclipse of the sun and an eclipse of the moon. During his reign Islâm will flourish in the world.

Imâm Mahdi will go for the "Ziyarat" of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) and then proceed to Damascus. There he will be confronted by a Christian army comprising of eighty groups. Imâm Mahdi (RA) will prepare an army from Damascus and fight the Christians. In this battle the Muslims will be divided into three groups. One will turn their backs on the Christian army and flee, their repentance will not be accepted and they will die as non believers. Another group will be rewarded with martyrdom. The third group will be victorious and will always be saved from destruction and all forms of evil.

Up to this day, whoever has claimed to be Mahdi was a liar

During the time of emperor Akbar, Sayed Muhammad Johnpuri claimed to be Mahdi. During the British rule of India, Ahmed Qadyâni also claimed to be Mahdi. Presently there is one claiming this post in Sudan.

They are all liars, since none of them conforms to the description of Imâm Mahdi (RA) as reported by Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam).

Second major sign-the appearance of Dajjâl (دجّال)

The word Dajjâl is derived from the Arabic word "Dajal" (دجل), which means to deceive, dupe, cheat etc. Hence Dajjâl means imposter, swindler, cheat. Many Dajjâls of this meaning have appeared. Imâm Abu Dawood and Imâm Tirmizi (RA) report the following Hadith of Rasulullah (RA)

"There will be Thirty liars in my Ummah, each one will claim to be a Nabi- whereas I am the seal of Nubuwat."

The Dajjâl mentioned in the Ahâdith that will appear during the reign of Imâm Mahdi, will be from the Jewish tribe. He will be known as Maseeh. He will be "one-eyed". His hair will be curly. On his forehead the letters, Kâf, Fâ, Râ (ك ف ر) will be inscribed, which true believers will be able to read. This is the stamp of Kufr which appears on his forehead. He will appear between Syria and Iraq and claim to be a Nabi. He will thereafter go to Isfahân where 70,000 (seventy thousand) Jews will become his followers. Here he will lay claim to divinity, and will spread mischief on earth. Two years before his appearance there will be a severe drought. To test the believers. Allâh will allow him to demonstrate many supernatural feats. He will burn a large fire and call it Jahannam. He will also have a garden called Jannah.

With a large army he will move around and cause pillage and plunder in many lands. He will then attempt to gain entry into Makkah, but the angels protecting it will not allow him to enter. He will then proceed to Madina and halt on the outskirts of Madina at Mount Uhud. During that time Madinah will have seven gates. Two angels will be standing guard over these gates and Dajjâl will be unable to enter Madina as well. He will then travel towards Damascus where Imâm Mahdi (AS) will be living. Imâm Mahdi (AS) will prepare a Muslim army to fight Dajjâl. On this occasion, while making preparation for the battle against Dajjâl, Hadhrat Esa (AS), resting his hands on the shoulders of two angels will descend from the heaven. He will alight on the eastern Minaret of the Jama-i-Masjid of Damascus.

The descent of Hadhrat Eisâ (AS)

The third major sign of Qiyâmah is the descent of Hadhrat Eisâ (AS) and the killing of Dajjal.

The descent of Hadhrat Esa (AS) is substantiated from Quran, Hadith and consensus of opinion. It is incumbent to hold this belief regarding Hadhrat Eisâ (AS).

Hadhrat Eisâ (AS) is a Nabi amongst the Ambiyâ of the Bani Israel. He had a miraculous birth, i.e. without the agency of a father. His mother Hadhrat Maryam (AS) never married. He was engaged in propagating the Message and Deen of Allâh. Due to hatred and jealously the Jews conspired to murder him, and thus locked him up in a room.

Allâh Ta'âlâ sent an angel to raise Hadhrat Eisâ (AS) physically i.e. with his body while he was alive. A person among the Jews entered the room to see Hadhrat Eisâ (AS). Allâh transformed his appearance to the like of Hadhrat Eisâ (AS). The Jews took him as Hadhrat Eisâ (AS) and murdered him. Thus he was saved snf raised physically to the heaven while he was still alive. He remains there alive to this day.

He will descend from heaven during the reign of Imâm Mahdi (AS). Imâm Mahdi (AS) will propose to hand over all control to Nabi Eisâ (AS) who will decline saying that his special duty is to slay Dajjâl. Allâh will aid him with such power and strength that whenever a non-believer touches his breath will die. Hadhrat Eisâ (AS) will pursue and kill Dajjâl at a place called "Bâb Lud" which is in Shâm. After destroying Dajjâl and his army Hadhrat Eisâ (AS) and Imâm Mahdi (AS) will console those who had suffered under the hands of Dajjâl.

Finally, the whole world will come under Islâmic domination. During this glorious Islâmic reign the whole world will be filled with justice and piety.

Imâm Mahdi (AS) will rule over the world for seven years before his death in "Baytul Maqdis". His age at the time of his death will be between 47 and 50. Hadhrat Eisâ (AS) will perform his Janâzah (funeral prayers) and bury him in "Baytul Maqdis".

After his death the leadership of Islâm will pass over to Hadhrat Eisâ (AS). He will adhere fully to the Shari'ah of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam). (‘Beliefs concerning the Qiyâmah' have been quoted from the book-Aqâidul Islâm)

The appearance of Ya'jooj and Ma'jooj (gog and magog)

Ya'jooj and Ma'jooj is a tribe from the progeny of Yafas the son of Hadhrat Nuh (AS).

They have been imprisoned behind a wall built by Zul Qarnain between two mountain ranges. They will emerge and wreak great destruction and turmoil on earth. Hadhrat Eisâ (AS) will go away to the mountains and pray to Allâh for their destruction. Allâh Ta'âlâ will finally eliminate them by a natural disaster. Thereafter Allâh will create birds with long necks who will their bodies and throw their remains into the sea. There will be a great flood thereafter that will cleanse the earth of the smell and diseases that will result from the destruction of this tribe. After the destruction of this tribe, there will be great bounties and blessing of Allâh on earth.

This prosperity will remain for seven years. Thereafter, Hadhrat Eisâ (AS) will die a physical death after accomplishing his duty. He will be buried in a grave next to Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam). In his lifetime Hadhrat Eisâ (AS) will appoint his Khalifah (successor), a man named Jahjaf of Yemen from the tribe of Quhtân. He will rule with great justice and piety. After him will follow several rulers and slowly evil and corruption will once again set in.

During this time the heavens will be covered with a dense fog which will envelope the earth for forty days. All Muslims will develop cold as a result of the fog and all non believers will lapse into unconsciousness, some will recover after a day while others after two or three days.

Proof

فَارْتَقِبْ يَوْمَ تَأْتِي السَّمَاءُ بِدُخَانٍ مُبِينٍ

"Wait for that day when a smoke will appear from the heavens." (44:11)

The rising of the sun in the west

Among the major signs of Qiyâmah is the rising of the sun in the West.

It is reported in a Hadith that the night preceding the rising of the sun in the West will become extremely extended. The duration of the night will instill restlessness and fear into people and animals. Children will awaken crying, travellers will tire, people will repent for their sins on seeing these signs. Eventually the sun will rise the following morning from the West. On this occasion the rays of the sun will be very dull. The sun will rise from the West until it reaches more or less the meridian and then again set in the West thereafter it will rise in the East as normally.

When this event will occur, neither Imân nor Tawbah will be valid. If any non believer repents and accepts Imân thereafter his repentance and belief will not be acceptable.

First proof

يَأْتِي بَعْضُ آيَاتِ رَبِّكَ لَا يَنْفَعُ نَفْسًا إِيمَانُهَا لَمْ تَكُنْ آمَنَتْ مِنْ قَبْلُ أَوْ كَسَبَتْ فِي إِيمَانِهَا خَيْرًا قُلِ انْتَظِرُوا إِنَّا مُنْتَظِرُونَ

"The day that certain of the signs of Allâh do come, believing shall not profit anyone who had not believed before or had not earned some good in his belief." (6:158)

It is stated in Bukhari and Muslim that the words "certain of the signs" means the rising of the sun from the West.

Second proof

Hadhrat Abu Hurairah (RA) reports that Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) said:

"Qiyâmah will not appear but after the Rising of the sun from the West. On seeing this people will ,accept Imân but their acceptance will be of no use to them. (Bukhari Muslim)

After the rising of the sun in the West, an earthquake will grip mount ‘Safa' in Makkah. The mountain will split open and a strange animal will emerge. This animal will speak to people.

Third proof

وَإِذَا وَقَعَ الْقَوْلُ عَلَيْهِمْ أَخْرَجْنَا لَهُمْ دَابَّةً مِنَ الْأَرْضِ تُكَلِّمُهُمْ أَنَّ النَّاسَ كَانُوا بِآيَاتِنَا لَا يُوقِنُونَ

"And when the word is fulfilled concerning them, we shall bring forth a beast of the earth, who will speak unto them for mankind did not believe." ( 27:82)

After the disappearance of this creature an extremely fresh and fragrant breeze will commence from the South. This breeze will cause all the believers to die, and there will remain no person to differentiate between virtue and evil.

The reign of africans

After the death of all Muslims (in the way mentioned above) the world will be filled with non believers. The world will be under the domination of the Kuffâr and the "Habashies" (Africans) will rule. They will destroy the Ka'bah Sharief, and remove the treasures buried under it.

The world will be plunged in immorality, evil and corruption. People will satisfy their sexual desires like animals in public. The Qur'ân will be raised, there will remain no believers and the worst epoch of moral degeneration and oppression will be witnessed. There will also be severe sicknesses and diseases.

First Proof

لا يستخرج كنز الكعبة إلا ذو الوقين من الحبشة

Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) has said that a short legged Habshi (negro) will remove the treasure of the Ka'bah.

Second proof

Hadhrat Abu Hurairah (RA) reports that Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) has said:

"Qiyâmah would not occur until the women of the tribe of Daus would worship their idols."

Thereafter peace will prevail in Shâm. It would be the greatest period of technology and science.

The last sign of Qiyâmah

The last sign of Qiyâmah is that a large and raging fire will burn in Adan (Yemen) which will turn the people towards the plains of congregation. Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) has made mention of this fire to be among the major signs of Qiyâmah.

After all these signs appear Allâh will command Hadhrat Israfeel (AS) to sound the "Soor" (trumpet). The "Soor" is a gigantic horn shaped trumpet. It will bring about the destruction of the entire universe and the creation will die. The souls of those who have died will become unconscious. However, those whom Allâh wishes to save will be saved.

A period will pass in this condition. Thereafter, Hadhrat Israfeel (AS) will be again commanded to sound the trumpet, which will result in all the dead to be resurrected. The period between the two soundings of the trumpet will be forty years or 40 months.

After this resurrection everybody will gather on the plains of congregation. Experiencing the difficulties of this day, people will go to the Ambiyâ for intercession. Finally Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) will intercede. and the scales of deeds will be set up. Deeds of every person will be weighed. The pious and virtuous will receive their book of records in their right hand and the evil will receive it in their left hand, On this occasion Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) will offer water from Haudhi Kawther (the well of blessing and intercession) to his followers . This water will be whiter than milk and sweeter than honey.

First proof

وَتَرَى النَّاسَ سُكَارَى وَمَا هُمْ بِسُكَارَى وَلَكِنَّ عَذَابَ اللَّهِ شَدِيدٌ

"And you will see men drunken, yet they will not be drunken but the chastisement of Allâh will be severe on them." (22:2)

Second proof

وَهُوَ الَّذِي يَبْدَأُ الْخَلْقَ ثُمَّ يُعِيدُهُ وَهُوَ أَهْوَنُ

"It is He who has created this the first time and it will be Him who will create it the second time. And the second creation is easier than the first for Him" (30:27)

Third proof

وَأَنَّ السَّاعَةَ آتِيَةٌ لَا رَيْبَ فِيهَا وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ يَبْعَثُ مَنْ فِي الْقُبُورِ

"And the hour will come, there is no doubt thereof and Allâh will raise those who are in the graves." (22:7)

The nature and condition of Qiyâmah

إِذَا الشَّمْسُ كُوِّرَتْ () وَإِذَا النُّجُومُ انْكَدَرَتْ ()

"When the Sun is overthrown, and when the stars fall." (81:1-2)

فَإِذَا نُفِخَ فِي الصُّورِ نَفْخَةٌ وَاحِدَةٌ () وَحُمِلَتِ الْأَرْضُ وَالْجِبَالُ فَدُكَّتَا دَكَّةً وَاحِدَةً () فَيَوْمَئِذٍ وَقَعَتِ الْوَاقِعَةُ ()

"And when the trumpet will sound one blast, and the earth and the mountains shall be lifted up and crushed with one crash. Then on that day will the event befall." (69:14-15)

إِذَا وَقَعَتِ الْوَاقِعَةُ () لَيْسَ لِوَقْعَتِهَا كَاذِبَةٌ () خَافِضَةٌ رَافِعَةٌ () إِذَا رُجَّتِ الْأَرْضُ رَجًّا () وَبُسَّتِ الْجِبَالُ بَسًّا () فَكَانَتْ هَبَاءً مُنْبَثًّا () وَكُنْتُمْ أَزْوَاجًا ثَلَاثَةً () فَأَصْحَابُ الْمَيْمَنَةِ مَا أَصْحَابُ الْمَيْمَنَةِ ()

"When the event befalleth -there is no denying that it will befall - abasing (some) exalting (others) when the earth is shaken a shock and the hills are ground to powder -so that they became a scattered dust. And ye will be three kinds -(first) those on the right hand, what of those on the right hand? And (then) those on the left hand, what of those on the left hand?" (56:1-8)

There are many such verses regarding Qiyâmah. After the first sounding of the trumpet everything will perish. Only Allâh will remain. Allâh will then ask:

لِمَنِ الْمُلْكُ الْيَوْمَ

"Whose kingdom is it today?" (40:16)

And then Allâh will reply Himself:

لِلَّهِ الْوَاحِدِ الْقَهَّارِ

"It is the kingdom of Allâh most Powerful." (40:16)

Forty years hence Allâh will give life to Hadhrat Israfeel (AS) who will be commanded to sound the trumpet once more.

The angels who carry the Throne of Allâh will be resurrected first. Thereafter Hadhrat Jibra'eel (AS), Meeka'eel (AS) and Isra'eel (AS) will be resurrected. Then the earth, sky, sun and the moon will be restored.

A rain will fall due to which all living things and people will be resurrected with body and soul.

وَنُفِخَ فِي الصُّورِ فَإِذَا هُمْ مِنَ الْأَجْدَاثِ إِلَى رَبِّهِمْ يَنْسِلُونَ

"When the second trumpet will sound people will raise from their graves and go towards their Allâh." (36:51)

يَوْمَ تُبَدَّلُ الْأَرْضُ غَيْرَ الْأَرْضِ

"On the day when the earth will be changed to other than the earth." (15:48)

Hence the plain of congregation and reckoning will not be the earth we live in.

After waiting a very long period on the plains of reckoning and after becoming disturbed and frustrated due to the heat and thirst there, people will turn towards Hadhrat Adam (AS) and request him for intercession so that the task of reckoning may commence. Hadhrat Adam (AS) will send all the people to Hadhrat Nuh (AS). Hadhrat Nooh (AS) will send them to Hadhrat Ebrahim (AS). Hadhrat Ebrahim (AS) will send them to Hadhrat Musâ (AS). Hadhrat Musâ (AS) will send them to Hadhrat Eisâ (AS). Hadhrat Easa (AS) will guide all the creation and to Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) and request for intercession.

Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) will then intercede and ask Allâh Ta'âlâ to begin the reckoning.

The distribution of deeds

After this intercession of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) the distribution of deeds will take place. Those who were obedient, virtuous and pious will receive their book of deeds in their right hands whereas the disobedient with evil deeds will receive their book of deeds in their left hands.

Those who will receive their book of deeds in the right hand will be pleased and in comfort and shall gain entrance into Jannah and those who will receive their book of deeds in their left hand will be in grief and pain. They shall be sent to Jahannam.

First proof

فَأَمَّا مَنْ أُوتِيَ كِتَابَهُ بِيَمِينِهِ () فَسَوْفَ يُحَاسَبُ حِسَابًا يَسِيرًا () وَيَنْقَلِبُ إِلَى أَهْلِهِ مَسْرُورًا () وَأَمَّا مَنْ أُوتِيَ كِتَابَهُ وَرَاءَ ظَهْرِهِ () فَسَوْفَ يَدْعُو ثُبُورًا () وَيَصْلَى سَعِيرًا ()

"Then he who is given his record in his right hand. Soon will his account be taken by an easy reckoning and he will turn to his people rejoicing but he who his given his record behind his back soon will he cry for Protection and he will enter a blazing fire." (84-7-12)

Second proof

اقْرَأْ كِتَابَكَ كَفَى بِنَفْسِكَ الْيَوْمَ عَلَيْكَ حَسِيبًا

"(It will be said to him) Read your (own) record- sufficient is your soul this day to make out an account against you." (17:14)

At this juncture the Ambiyâ and the two angels Kirâman Kâtibeen will be summoned. Allâh Ta'âlâ says:

وَجِيءَ بِالنَّبِيِّينَ وَالشُّهَدَاءِ وَقُضِيَ بَيْنَهُمْ بِالْحَقِّ

"And the Ambiyâ and the witnesses will be brought forward and a just decision pronounced between them." (39:69)

The Ambiyâ will say we have delivered the message but the non believers refused to accept. The non believers will deny and reject the Ambiyâ's testimony. Allâh Ta'âlâ will then ask the Ambiyâ to produce witness.

Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) and his Ummah will bear witness for the Ambiyâ (AS) that they had delivered the message. The angels Kirâman Kâtibeen will present their records of deeds. The non believers will deny this too. Allâh will give the organs of the human body power to speak and they will testify against the non believers.

Third proof

يَوْمَ تَشْهَدُ عَلَيْهِمْ أَلْسِنَتُهُمْ وَأَيْدِيهِمْ وَأَرْجُلُهُمْ بِمَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ

"On the day when their tongues, their hands and their feet will bear witness against them."(24:24)

وَإِنْ كَانَ مِثْقَالَ حَبَّةٍ مِنْ خَرْدَلٍ أَتَيْنَا بِهَا وَكَفَى بِنَا حَاسِبِينَ

"And if there be (no more than) the weight of a mustard seed we will bring it (to account) and sufficient are we to take account." (21:47)

Hadhrat Aisha (RA) reports that Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) used to recite the following Dua in his prayers.

أللهم حاسبني حسابا يسيرا

"O Allâh ease my reckoning."

Hadhrat Aisha (RA) says, once when Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) completed his Salâh she asked him "What is ease of reckoning?" Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) replied "that Allâh forgives you on receipt of your actions of reckoning".

It is reported in a Hadith that Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) has said: Allâh will execute justice between animals also. If an animal with horns had hurt another animal without horns, justice will be executed between them also. All animals will be commanded to perish thereafter.

After that the actions of everyone will be weighed. Allâh will erect a bridge over Jahannam called ‘Pul-i-Sirât'. The believers will cross it and enter into Jannah and the people destined for Jahannam will fall over into Jahannam while crossing it.

Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) will be the first to cross this bridge with his followers. Some believers will cross it with the speed of lightening others slower and others even slower depending on their deeds. There will be complete darkness over the bridge but for the believers there will be a light (the light of Imân) with which they will see.

Haudhi Kawther

On the day of Qiyâmah every Nabi will be given a gift as a special mark of his Nubuwat. Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) will be given the "Haudhi Kawther". It will be the most distinguished gift on this day. The Qur'ân speaks of this in the following manner.

إِنَّا أَعْطَيْنَاكَ الْكَوْثَرَ

"Verily we have given you kawthar (abundance)". (108:1)

There are also may Ahâdith which speak about this great gift.

In another Hadith it is reported that those parts of the body of a Mumin that he used to wash while making Wudhu, will glitter on this day as a mark of being the followers of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam).

When people will rise from their graves they will be extremely thirsty.

Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) is reported to have said the length of my ‘Haudh' will be the equal to the distance covered in a months journey. Its water will be whiter than milk and sweeter than honey. There will be goblets to the magnitude of the stars in the sky. Whoever drinks of it once will never be thirsty again.

Some are of the opinion that attendance at this well will be before reckoning while others are of the opinion it will take place after reckoning.

It seems that some will drink from it as they rise from their graves whilst others will be delayed due to their sins. While some believers will drink after getting salvation from Jahannam and before entrance into Jannah.

What will Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) intercede for?

Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) will intercede for the following:

For the commencement of the reckoning.

For ease of reckoning.

Salvation for those destined for Jahannam.

Salvation for those who have been entered into Jahannam.

Elevation in the ranks of many of his followers:

The Ambiyâ (AS), Ulema, Awliyâ, Shuhadâ, Huffâz and the pious will be granted permission to intercede for the unfaithful believers who have been destined for Jahannam. Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) will be first to be allowed to intercede.

Hadhrat Anas (RA) reports that Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) has said:

"When the Last Day will dawn and all the former and latter ones will be gathered together on the plain of reckoning, there will be great anxiety among the people. Thus, they (i.e., some of their representatives) will approach Hadhrat Adam (AS) to intercede on their behalf, and Hadhrat Adam (AS) will reply, "I am not worthy of it. You better go to Hadhrat Ibrahim (AS), he is the friend of Allâh and may be able to help you. They will accordingly approach Hadhrat Ibrahim (AS) and make the request of intercession to him. He too, will reply, "I am not worthy of it. You better go to Hadhrat Musâ (AS), he is the speaker with Allâh and may help you. They will accordingly approach to Hadhrat Musâ (AS) and make the request to him. But he again, will reply, I am not worthy of it. You better go to Hadhrat Eisâ (AS), he is the spirit of Allâh and may be able to help you. They will accordingly approach to Hadhrat Eisâ (AS) and place same request to him. But he will also say "I am not worthy of it. You better go to the Last Divine Ambiyâ (AS), Muhammad (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam)." They will thereupon, come to me and ask me to intercede, I will say, "This is my task".

I will then, seek an audience with the Al-Merciful which will be conceded. Allâh will communicate to me the knowledge of some of His praises (which are not known to me at present). I shall Glorify Him through those praises and bow low, touching the ground with the forehead in reverence.

(According to report in Musnad-i-Ahmad), Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) will remain in this posture for a week. It will then be said to me, "O Muhammad! Raise your head and ask what you want. Your prayer will be heard. Ask for anything and it will be granted. Make what ever intercession you wish to make and it will be allowed." I shall say, ‘My followers', (Meaning mercy be shown to them today, and they may be forgiven). I will be told to go and take them out of Jahannam even those who have faith equivalent to weight of a mustard seed. I shall go and do so. After wards, I shall return to the benevolent presence of Allâh Ta'âlâ, and again praise Him with the words inspired to me and fall into prostration before Him, It will, once more, be said to me, "O Muhammad! Raise your head and say what you want. Your prayer will be heard. Ask for anything you like and it will be granted. Make whatever intercession you wish to make and it will be allowed." I shall say ‘My followers'. "I will be told to go and take them out of Jahannam in whose hearts there is faith even of the weight of a dust particle. I shall go and do so. Afterwards, I shall return to the benevolent presence of Allâh Ta'âlâ and again praise Him in the words inspired to me and fall in prostration before Him. It will once more be said to me. "O Mohammad raise your head and say what you want . Ask for anything you like and it will be granted. Make whatever intercession you wish to make and it will be allowed." I shall say ‘My Followers'. I will thereupon, be told to go and take them out of Jahannam in whose hearts there is faith even of a lesser weight than a dust-particle. I shall go and do it. After it, I shall return for the fourth time, to the benevolent presence of Allâh Ta'âlâ and praise Him in the words inspired in me and fall in prostration before Him. It will be said to me, "O Muhammad! Raise your head and say what you want. your prayer will be heard. Ask for anything you like and it will be granted. Make any intercession you wish to make and it will be granted. Make any intercession you wish to make and it will be allowed. I will then say "O Allâh allow me to intercede on behalf of all those who may have said la-illaha-illalah لا إله إلا الله. Allâh will thereupon, remark. "It is not your task. By my Power and Glory and by My Majesty and Magnificence, I shall take out of Jahannam all those who have said La-illaha-illAllâh لا إله إلا الله.

It is reported by Hadhrat Abu Huriarah (RA) that Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) said:

"On the Day of Qiyâmah such people will also benefit from my intercession who have committed major sins".

On the Day of Qiyâmah Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) will be crowned with the position of "Maqâme Mahmood" (مقام محمود), the status that all the Ambiyâ (AS) wished for. On this day Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam), on being implored by his followers and moved by their pathetic state will step forward with fullest faith in the Mercy of Allâh and entreat Him humbly that the state of anxious uncertainty be ended and judgment be pronounced. On this day the high and elevated position of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) will be manifested.

Once the door of intercession will be opened by Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) and other Ambiyâ (AS), angels and pious servants of Allâh will also be allowed to intercede for the believers.

Hadhrat Abu Sa'eed Khudri (RA) reports that Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) said: "Among my followers there will be some people who will intercede on behalf of nations and communities and some will intercede on behalf of groups, and some who will intercede on behalf of one person and Allâh will accept the intercession of everybody, eventually all the believers shall enter Jannah.

In some Ahâdith it is also indicated that even the children who have died in their infancy will intercede on behalf of their parents.

Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) assured intercession for the following people:

The believer who visits the grave Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam).

He who sends Durood and Salâm abundantly on Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam).

He who passes away in Makkah and Madinah thereby regarding dying in these two blessed places as a reward.

Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) will not intercede for non-believers, similarly he had indicated not to intercede for certain sinful Muslims e.g., oppressive ruler and those who transgress the boundaries of Shari'ah.

May Allâh bestow us death with Imân and may all the Muslims benefit from Rasulullah's (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) intercession.

A'râf

There is a place called A'râf between Jannah and Jahannam where the dwellers of Jannah and Jahannam will converse with the one another. Allâh Ta'âlâ says in Qur'ân:

وَبَيْنَهُمَا حِجَابٌ وَعَلَى الْأَعْرَافِ

"Between them shall be a veil." (7:46)

رِجَالٌ يَعْرِفُونَ كُلًّا بِسِيمَاهُمْ

"And on the height will be men who would know every one by his marks." (7:46)

The Ulema are of the opinion that the dwellers of A'râf will be those who have good and evil actions in equal. These people will express their wish to entered Jannah. Allâh will finally order their entrance into Jannah.

ادْخُلُوا الْجَنَّةَ لَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْكُمْ وَلَا أَنْتُمْ تَحْزَنُونَ

"Enter into Jannah no fear shall be on your nor shall ye grieve." (7:49)

Jahannam has been already created

Allâh Ta'âlâ says in the Qur'ân:

وَاتَّقُوا النَّارَ الَّتِي أُعِدَّتْ لِلْكَافِرِينَ

"It (Jahannam) has been prepared for the Non-believers" (3:131)

It comprises of severe physical and spiritual chastisements and tortures. The dwellers of Jahannam who posses a little bit of Imân will gain entrance into Jannah after being punished for their sins while the non-believers and Mushrikeen will remain in Jahannam eternally. Allâh Ta'âlâ says in Qur'ân:

إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَغْفِرُ أَنْ يُشْرَكَ بِهِ وَيَغْفِرُ مَا دُونَ ذَلِكَ

"Allâh forgives not that partners should be set up with Him but He forgive anything else" (4:48)

وَلِلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا بِرَبِّهِمْ عَذَابُ جَهَنَّمَ وَبِئْسَ الْمَصِيرُ

"For those who reject their Allâh is the penalty of Jahannam and evil is such destination" (67:6)

إِنَّ شَجَرَةَ الزَّقُّومِ () طَعَامُ الْأَثِيمِ () كَالْمُهْلِ يَغْلِي فِي الْبُطُونِ () كَغَلْيِ الْحَمِيمِ ()

Verily the tree of Zaqqom will be the food of the sinful - like molten brass; it will boil in their insides, like the boiling of scalding water." (44:43-45)

مِنْ وَرَائِهِ جَهَنَّمُ وَيُسْقَى مِنْ مَاءٍ صَدِيدٍ

"In front of such a one is Jahannam and he is given for drink boiling water." (14:16)

وَإِنَّ جَهَنَّمَ لَمَوْعِدُهُمْ أَجْمَعِينَ () لَهَا سَبْعَةُ أَبْوَابٍ لِكُلِّ بَابٍ مِنْهُمْ جُزْءٌ مَقْسُومٌ ()

"And verily Jahannam is the promised abode for them all to it are seven gates." (15:43-44)

It is related in Bukhari that the mildest punishment to be inflicted to a person in Jahannam is that he will be made to wear a pair of sandals of fire and due to its intense heat his brain will boil up.

Non believers will not get salvation from Jahannam. The Qur'ân is replete with the words:

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ وَالْمُشْرِكِينَ فِي نَارِ جَهَنَّمَ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا أُولَئِكَ هُمْ شَرُّ الْبَرِيَّةِ

"Those who reject (the Truth) among the people of the Book and among the polytheists will be in hell-fire, to dwell there in (forever). They are worst of creatures" (98:6)

Proofs for the physical existence of Jannah

Allâh Ta'âlâ says in Qur'ân:

وَلِمَنْ خَافَ مَقَامَ رَبِّهِ جَنَّتَانِ

" It (Jannah) has been prepared for the pious." (55-46)

The incident of Hadhrat Adam (AS) and Hadhrat Hawa (AS), when they were taken out of Jannah and placed on earth proves the physical existence of Jannah.

Also, Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) himself saw Jannah and Jahannam on the occasion of Me'raj.

Deedâr (ديدار) of Allâh Ta'âlâ

The greatest blessing in Jannah will be the "Deedâr" of Allâh Ta'âlâ. ( i.e. the dwellers of Jannah will be able to see (Allâh Ta'âlâ).

وُجُوهٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ نَاضِرَةٌ () إِلَى رَبِّهَا نَاظِرَةٌ ()

"That day will faces be resplendent. Looking towards their Allâh." (75:22-23)

Hadhrat Suhaib (RA) narrates that he heard Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) saying, when the people of Jannah will arrive there, Allâh will enquire from them "Do you wish that We may grant one more favour to you" (i.e. bestow upon you a blessing in addition to what you have already received)? They will answer "You have bestowed so many favours on us and you saved us from Jahannam and granted us Jannah. What more can we ask for ?" The veil will then be lifted and they will be able to see Allâh Ta'âlâ. This blessing will surpass all other favours that had been conferred on them.

Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) thereafter recited the following verse of the Qur'ân:

لِلَّذِينَ أَحْسَنُوا الْحُسْنَى وَزِيَادَةٌ

"Or those who do good is the best place and more there to." (10:26)

Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) is reported to have said:

سترون ربكم عيانا

"You will see your Allâh Ta'âlâ clearly." (Bukhari and Muslim)

Hadhrat Jareer Ibn Abdullah (RA) narrated that one night we were sitting with Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam), and he looked at the moon. It was the fourteenth night of the month, and the full moon was shining in the sky. Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) then turned towards us and said:

"Surely you will see Allâh Ta'âlâ as you are seeing the moon. You will have to make no special effort to see Him, nor will there be any other difficulty." (Bukhari and Muslim)

This Hadith has been narrated by twenty one Sahâbah (RA).

كَلَّا إِنَّهُمْ عَنْ رَبِّهِمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ لَمَحْجُوبُونَ

"Nay, but surely on that Day they will be covered from their Allâh Ta'âlâ (and prevented from seeing Him)" (pertaining to the non-believers). (83:15)

It is impossible to see Allâh Ta'âlâ

In this world in a state of wakefulness, it is not possible to see Allâh Ta'âlâ with the naked eye.

First proof:

تُدْرِكُهُ الْأَبْصَارُ وَهُوَ يُدْرِكُ الْأَبْصَارَ وَهُوَ اللَّطِيفُ الْخَبِيرُ

"The eyes cannot comprehend Him but He comprehends everything." (6:103)

This means that in this world the creation is unable to see Allâh Ta'âlâ with the naked eye. However Allâh comprehends everything.

Second proof:

It is reported that Hadhrat Abdullah Bin Shaqeeq (RA) said to Hadhrat Abu Zar Gafari (RA), "If I had met Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam), I would have certainly asked him a question. Hadhrat Abu Zar (RA) asked: "What is it that you wished to ask?" He replied: "I would have asked, did you (i.e., Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam)) see your Allâh?" Hadhrat Abu Zar (RA) said: "I asked Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) this question and he replied: "Allâh is Nur, how could I have seen him." (Tirmidhi)

To have seen Allâh Ta'âlâ by Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) on the night of Me'raj is not contradictory to this Hadith, since Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) saw Allâh in Jannah and not in this world. This proves that Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) did not see Allâh Ta'âlâ in this world.

However pious people are sometimes most privileged to see Allâh Ta'âlâ in their dreams. It is reported that Imâm Abu Haniefah (RA) and Imâm Ahmed bin Hambal (RA) saw Allâh Ta'âlâ in their dream.

Punishment and reward in the Hereafter

Punishment and reward in the Hereafter is dependent on the condition of man at the time of his death.

First proof:

Hadhrat Abdullah Ibn Mas'ood (RA) reports that Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) said: "You may do good deeds which take you towards Jannah, you will only be a foot away from Jannah and you may do evil that ultimately leads you into Jahannam.

Second proof:

Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) has said in a Hadith:

إنما الأعمال بالخواتيم

"Your deeds are judged by your condition at the time of your death."

Allâh Ta'âlâ accepts his repentance

Whenever a person repents sincerely, Allâh Ta'âlâ accepts his repentance and forgives him. However at the time of death, when he becomes able to see the angels of death and punishment, his repentance and Imân is not accepted.

First proof:

وَلَيْسَتِ التَّوْبَةُ لِلَّذِينَ يَعْمَلُونَ السَّيِّئَاتِ حَتَّى إِذَا حَضَرَ أَحَدَهُمُ الْمَوْتُ قَالَ إِنِّي تُبْتُ الْآنَ

"Of no effect is the repentance of those who continue to do evil, until death faces them and he says now have I repented indeed." (4-8)

Second proof:

قُلْ يَا عِبَادِيَ الَّذِينَ أَسْرَفُوا عَلَى أَنْفُسِهِمْ لَا تَقْنَطُوا مِنْ رَحْمَةِ اللَّهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَغْفِرُ الذُّنُوبَ جَمِيعًا إِنَّهُ هُوَ الْغَفُورُ الرَّحِيمُ

"Say! O my servants who have transgressed against their souls- Despair not of the mercy of Allâh; for Allâh forgives all sins, for He is All Forgiving Most Merciful." (39-53)

Third proof:

إِنَّمَا التَّوْبَةُ عَلَى اللَّهِ لِلَّذِينَ يَعْمَلُونَ السُّوءَ بِجَهَالَةٍ ثُمَّ يَتُوبُونَ مِنْ قَرِيبٍ فَأُولَئِكَ يَتُوبُ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِمْ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا

"Allâh accepts the repentance of those who do evil in ignorance and repent soon afterwards, to them will Allâh turn in mercy, for Allâh is full of knowledge and wisdom". (4:17)

باب-بلا ترجمة الباب

Chapter (Bâb) 39 : Without Tarjamatul Bâb.

Purpose of Tarjamatul Bâb

Imâm Bukhari has not established any title (Tarjamatul Bâb) for this chapter. In some copies of Bukhari Sharief even the word "Bâb" is not there which can imply that this Hadith will be included in the previous chapter. In previous chapter Imâm Bukhari said that Imân, Islâm and Ahsân are all Deen, Here tries to convey that Deen has different grades as in the Hadith quoted here, the Heraclius uses the word "Deen" when he asks Ibn Sufyân, "Does any body leave this Deen after entering into it? Abu Sufyân answers in negative. In response to the answer of Abu Sufyân, Heraclius says, "That is Imân when a small bit of it enters into the hearts, no one hates it" What Heraclius called as "Deen" in his question, he called the same as "Imân" in his answer, thereby meaning that both are same.

Sheikh-ul-Hind says: In this chapter Imâm Bukhari is compensating the thing which he said in the chapter titled "Fear of a believer that his deeds may be nullified". In that chapter Imâm Bukhari said that a believer should live in a constant fear of losing his Imân. In this Hadith, he is saying that once Imân gets incorporated in heart then it never leaves.

Hadith No. 50

حدّثنا ( إبْرَاهِيمُ بنُ حَمْزَة ) َ قال حدّثنا ( إبْرَاهِيمُ بنُ سَعْد ) ٍ عنْ ( صالِح ) ٍ عنِ ( ابنِ شهاب ) ِ عنْ ( عُبَيدِ اللَّهِ بنِ عبدِ اللَّه ) ِ أنَّ ( عبدَ اللَّهِ بنَ عبَّاس ) أَخْبَرَهُ قال أَخْبَرَنِي ( أبُو سُفْيَان ) َ أنّ ( هرقْل ) َ قال لَهُ سأَلْتُكَ هَلْ يَزِيدُونَ أمْ يَنْقُصونَ فَزَعَمْتَ أنهُمْ يَزِيدُونَ وكَذلكَ الإيمانُ حتَّى يتَمَّ وسألْتُكَ هلْ يَرْتَدُّ أحدٌ سَخْطَةً لِدِينِهِ بَعْدَ أن يَدْخُلَ فيهِ فَزَعَمْتَ أن لا وكذلكَ الإيمانُ حِينَ تُخالِطُ بشَاشَتُهُ القُلُوبَ لا يَسْخَطُهُ أحدٌ

Narrated by Abdullah bin Abbas (RA)

I was informed by Abu Sufyân that Heraclius said to him, "I asked you whether they (followers of Muhammad) were increasing or decreasing. You replied that they were increasing. And in fact, this is the way of true Faith till it is complete in all respects. I further asked you whether there was anybody, who, after embracing his (the Prophets) religion (Islâm) became displeased and discarded it. You replied in the negative, and in fact, this is (a sign of) true faith. When its delight enters the heart and mixes with them completely, nobody can be displeased with it."

بابُ فَضْلِ مَنِ اسْتَبْرأَ لِدِينِهِ

Chapter (Bâb) 40 : "The superiority of that person who leaves all doubtful things for the sake of his religion."

Purpose of Tarjamatul Bâb

Here Imâm Bukhari wants to say that not only Imân has grades, but "Taqwâ" also has grades. Taqwâ means to refrain from sins because of fear of Allâh. Its first grade is to refrain from Kufr and Shirk, second grade is to refrain from major sins, third grade is to refrain from minor sins and fourth grade is to refrain from doubtful things.

Hadith No. 51

حدّثنا ( أبُو نَعِيْم ) ٍ حدّثنا ( زَكَرياء ) ُ عن ( عامِر ) ٍ قال سَمِعْتُ ( النُّعمْانَ بنَ بَشِير ) ٍ يقولُ سَمِعْتُ رسولُ اللَّهِ يقولُ الحَلالُ بَيِّنٌ والحَرامُ بَيِّنٌ وَبيْنِهما مُشَبَّهَاتٌ لا يَعْلَمُها كَثِيرٌ مِنَ النَّاسِ فَمَنِ اتَّقَى المُشَبَّهَات اسْتَبْرَأَ لِدِينِهِ وعِرْضهِ ومَنْ وَقَعَ فِي الشُّبُهَاتِ كَرَاعِي يَرْعَى حَولَ الحِمى يُوشِكُ أن يُواقِعَهُ ألا وإنّ لِكُلِّ مَلِكٍ حِمًى ألا إنّ حِمَى اللَّهِ في أرْضِهِ مَحَارِمُهُ ألا وإنّ في الجَسَدِ مُضْغَةً إذا صَلَحَتْ صَلَحَ الجَسدُ كُلُّهُ وإذا فَسَدَتْ فَسَدَ الجَسَدُ كُلُّهُ ألا وهْيَ القَلبُ

Narrated by an-No'man bin Bashir (RA)

I heard Allâh's Apostle (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) saying, 'Both legal and illegal things are evident but in between them there are doubtful (suspicious) things and most of the people have no knowledge about them. So whoever saves himself from these suspicious things saves his religion and his honor. And whoever indulges in these suspicious things is like a shepherd who grazes (his animals) near the Hima (private pasture) of someone else and at any moment he is liable to get in it. (O people!) Beware! Every king has a Hima and the Hima of Allâh on the earth is His illegal (forbidden) things. Beware! There is a piece of flesh in the body if it becomes good (reformed) the whole body becomes good but if it gets spoilt the whole body gets spoilt and that is the heart.

Narrator-Hadhrat No'man bin Bashir

An-No'man bin Bashir (RA) is the son of Bashir bin Sa'd (RA) who embraced Islâm in 'Aqba-Thania'. He participated in all Gazwas including Badr. His mother was the sister of a famous suhabi namely Abdullah bin Rawaha (RA). No'man bin Bashir (RA) was born in 3nd year of Hijrah and is called أول مولود في الاسلام(First born child in Islâm) after Hijrah of Ansâr from Madinah as Abdullah bin Zubair (RA) was the first born child in Islâm after Hijrah of Muhâjireen. Hadhrat No'man bin Bashir (RA) was the governor of Hamas and Kofa during Khilâfat of Hadhrat Mâwiyah (RA). There are one hundred and fourteen Ahâdith narrated on his authority, of which five are agreed upon. He died in 64 Hijrah, may Allâh be pleased with his soul and elevate his rank.

Status of the Hadith

This Hadith is one of the great Ahâdith. Some people say that it is one third of Islâm. Imâm Abu Dawood has chosen four Ahâdith from a total of five lac Ahâdith, which he thinks are enough for one's Deen and this is one among these Ahâdith. These Ahâdith are:

1) إنما الأعمال بالنيات

2) من حسن الإسلام ترمه ما لا يعنه

3) لا يكون المؤما حتى يرضى لأخيه ما يوضى لنفسه

4) ألحرام بيّن والحرام بيّن

Comments

Hadhrat No'man bin Bashir (RA) says that he heard Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) as saying that Halâl (Permissible things in the Shari'ah) is quite evident and Harâm (forbidden things in Shari'ah) is also evident. A believer is supposed to act upon Halâl and to refrain from Harâm. But there are a good number of things where one gets confused whether these are Halâl or Harâm. It is these things which are labelled as "Mushtabihât" . In this Hadith Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) says that one who keeps himself away even from doubtful things or Mushtabihât, he will definitely save his Deen.

Halâl and Harâm is evident

This means that a particular thing being Halâl is proved beyond any doubt by the four sources of Fiqh i.e., the Qur'an, Hadith, consensus of the Ummah (Ijma-اجمعاء) and Qayyas (juristic reasoning). There is no difference of opinion in the Ummah about these things being Halâl or Harâm. Such doubtless Halâl things are to be taken and acted upon without any hesitation and such doubtless Harâm things are to be abstained from. This is the common man's grade of Taqwâ (Piety).

Mushtabihât

There are many things which fall between the two groups i.e., clear-cut Halâl and clear-cut Harâm, and these are called Mushtabihât or doubtful things. There are many things which make them doubtful. Allâmah Khattabi says that one should not understand that there is nothing known about these things in Shari'ah because Allâh has ordained about everything. But the thing is that the statement of Shari'ah about a particular thing is sometimes not told in clear terms and common people do not find easy answers to such things and hence become doubtful as regards the common man but are not doubtful near Allâh or Shari'ah or the learned people. This thing is clear from the wording of this Hadith only which says that many people do not know it, which indirectly means that some people know it. Then the message of this Hadith would be that anyone who does not know the status of a particular thing as regards to Halâl or Harâm, should remain away from it till he comes to know about its true nature from the learned scholars of Islâm. If it turns to be Halâl, he can go for it and if it turns to be Harâm than he should leave it.

Imâm Nawawi says that Mushtabihât are those things about which the proofs of being Halâl or Harâm, are contradictory. He says that it will be better to leave them even if some Mujtahid grants its permission. This type of Taqwâ is called Var'a (ورع).

Some examples of Mushtabihât

The rulings applicable in Dharul-Harb (دار الخرب) and Dharul-Islâm (دار الاسلام) are different . There are certain things which become permissible in Dharul-Harb but are forbidden in Dhar-ul-Islâm. Now, if it is not clear whether a particular country should be called Dharul-Harb or Dharul-Islâm, it is better not to consider those things permissible which otherwise become permissible.

Women have been asked not to visit grave yards but there is another Hadith which says that not going to grave yards has not been made obligatory on them. There seems to be a contradiction, in such an event going of women to grave yards has become doubtful, so it would be better for them not to go.

Some times a thing is quite Halâl but others get confused about it, and there is every apprehension that they may put false allegations against the doer, that time it is better to avoid such situations, though one is doing quite permissible job. Once Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) was accompanying his wife Safiyah during night, two men from Ansâr passed by, Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) at once told them that ‘she is my wife Safiya'. By doing this Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) closed any opportunity of Satan to put wrong thing in their minds.

So whoever saves himself from these suspicious things saves his religion and his honour

By leaving doubtful things one saves both his religion as well as his honour. People take in high esteem a person who avoids even a doubtful thing and regard him as a pious man. For example, any person who avoids a particular medicine which contains alcohol is considered very pious by the people. One who takes pains to avoid even doubtful things he is very unlikely to commit sins and as such he will definitely save his Deen. And whoever indulges in these suspicious things is like a shepherd who grazes his cattle near the Hima (private pasture) of someone else and at any moment his cattle is liable to get in it.

What is Hima?

In olden days the kings used to select a fertile piece of green pasture as their private pasture and would punish any one grazing his cattle therein. So, the shepherds usually grazed their cattle far away from it fearing that that they might be punished as there is every possibility that these cattle may get in the forbidden pasture.

Hima of Allâh is His forbidden things

Allâmah Shabir Uthmâni says that man is like a shepherd and his Nafs is like cattle and the doubtful things are like the surroundings around the Hima (private pasture of Allâh i.e., His Forbidden things). So, the Nafs which takes the forbidden things is likely to indulge in Harâm things.

Beware! There is a pice of flesh

Beware! There is a piece of flesh in the body if it becomes good (reformed) the whole body becomes good but if it gets spoilt the whole body gets spoilt and that is the heart.

In this Hadith it is said that one can save his religion and honour if one avoids the forbidden things and in this part of the Hadith it is said that one can achieve this thing by concentrating on the Qalb. If the Qalb becomes purified from all the worldly filth then it would be easy to achieve higher grades of Taqwâ.

باب أَدَاءُ الْخُمُسِ مِنَ الإيمانِ

Chapter (Bâb) 41 : "To pay one fifth of the war booty (in the name of Allâh) is a part of faith."

Purpose of Tarjamatul Bâb

Imâm Bukhari is enumerating the branches of Imân and he has kept this thing as last probably because some people sometimes get the booty after death.

Hadith No. 52

حدثنا علي بن الجعد قال أخبرنا شعبة عن أبي جمرة قال كنت اقعد مع ابن عباس يجلسني على سريره فقال أقم عندي حتى أجعل لك سهما من مالي فاقمت معه شهرين ثم قال إن وفد عبد القيس لما أتوا النبي قال من القوم أو من الوفد قالوا ربيعة قال مرحبا بالقوم أو بالوفد غير حزايا ولا ندامى فقالوا يا رسول الله إنا لا نستطيع أن نأتيك إلا في شهر الحرام وبيننا وبينك هذا الحي من كفار مضر فمرنا بأمر فصل نخبر به من رواءنا وندخل به الجنة وسألوه عن الاشربة فأمرهم بأربع ونهاهم عن أربع أمرهم بالإيمان بالله وحده قال أتدرون ما الإيمان بالله وحده قالوا الله ورسوله أعلم قال شهادة أن لا إله إلا الله وأن محمدا رسول الله وإقام الصلاة وإيتاء الزكاة وصيام رمضان وأن تعطوا من المغنم الخمس ونهاهم عن أربع عن الحنتم والدباء والنقير والمزفت وربما قال المقير وقال احفظوهن وأخبروا بهن من وراءكم

Narrated by Hadhrat Abu Jamra (RA)

I used to sit with Ibn 'Abbas and he made me sit on his sitting place. He requested me to stay with him in order that he might give me a share from his property. So I stayed with him for two months. Once he told (me) that when the delegation of the tribe of 'Abdul Qais came to the Prophet, the Prophet asked them, "Who are the people (i.e. you)? (Or) who are the delegate?" They replied, "We are from the tribe of Rabi'a." Then the Prophet said to them, "Welcome! O people (or O delegation of 'Abdul Qais)! Neither will you have disgrace nor will you regret." They said, "O Allâh's Apostle! We cannot come to you except in the sacred month and there is the infidel tribe of Mudar intervening between you and us. So please order us to do something good (religious deeds) so that we may inform our people whom we have left behind (at home), and that we may enter Paradise (by acting on them)." Then they asked about drinks (what is legal and what is illegal). The Prophet ordered them to do four things and forbade them from four things. He ordered them to believe in Allâh Alone and asked them, "Do you know what is meant by believing in Allâh Alone?" They replied, "Allâh and His Apostle know better." Thereupon the Prophet said, "It means:

To testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allâh and Muhammad is Allâh's Apostle.

To offer prayers perfectly

To pay the Zakâh (obligatory charity)

To observe fast during the month of Ramadan.

And to pay Al-Khumus (one fifth of the booty to be given in Allâh's Cause).

Then he forbade them four things, namely, Hantam, Dubba,' Naqir Ann Muzaffat or Muqaiyar; (These were the names of pots in which alcoholic drinks were prepared) (The Prophet mentioned the container of wine and he meant the wine itself). The Prophet further said (to them): "Memorize them (these instructions) and convey them to the people whom you have left behind."

Comments

Al-Khumus means one fifth of the booty one gets after participating in the war fought in the way of Allâh. Imâm Bukhari wants to convey that paying of this Khumus is also part of faith. Allâh Ta'âlâ says in the Qur'an:

وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّمَا غَنِمْتُمْ مِنْ شَيْءٍ فَأَنَّ لِلَّهِ خُمُسَهُ وَلِلرَّسُولِ وَلِذِي الْقُرْبَى وَالْيَتَامَى وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ آمَنْتُمْ بِاللَّهِ وَمَا أَنْزَلْنَا عَلَى عَبْدِنَا يَوْمَ الْفُرْقَانِ يَوْمَ الْتَقَى الْجَمْعَانِ وَاللَّهُ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ

"And know that out of all the booty that ye may acquire (in war) a fifth share is assigned to Allâh and to the apostle and to near relatives orphans the needy and the wayfarer if ye do believe in Allâh and in the revelation We sent down to Our servant on the day of testing the day of the meeting of the two forces. For Allâh hath power over all things." (8:41)

باب ما جاءَ أنّ الأعْمَال بالنِّيَّةِ والحِسْبَةِ ولِكُلِّ امرِىء ما نَوَى فَدَخَلَ فيهِ الإيمانُ والوضُوء والصَّلاةُ والزَّكاةُ والحَجُّ والصَّوْم والأحْكامُ وقال الله تعالى قُلْ كُلٌّ يَعْمَل على شاكِلَتِهِ على نيَّتِهِ ونفَقَةُ الرَّجُلِ على أهْلِهِ يَحْتَسِبُهَا صَدَقَةً قال النَّبيُّ ولَكِنْ جهِادٌ ونِيَّةٌ

Chapter (Bâb) 42 : What came in the saying "The reward of deeds depends upon the intention and seeking the reward from Allâh. And every person will have reward according to what he has intended". And this includes Faith, Ablution, Salâh, Fasting, Zakâh, Hajj and other commands of Allâh and Allâh Ta'âlâ said: "Each one does (deeds) according to his intentions and the spending of a man for his family with the intention of having reward from Allâh, will be rewarded as alms (Sadqah). And the Prophet (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) said: "But Jihâd and intention".

Purpose of Tarjamatul Bâb

As per Imâm Bukhari a deed will fetch reward only if it is done with sincere intention (Niyyat) with the sole aim of seeking reward from Allâh (Hisbat).

Hadith No. 53

حدّثنا ( عبدُ اللَّهِ بنُ مَسْلَمَة ) َ قال أخْبَرَنَا ( مالِك ) ٌ عنْ ( يَحْيَى بنِ سَعِيد ) ٍ عنْ ( مُحَمّدِ بنِ إِبْرَاهِيم ) َ عن ( عَلْقَمَةَ بنِ وَقَّاص ) ٍ عنْ ( عُمَر ) َ أنّ رسولَ اللَّهِ قال الأَعْمَالُ بالنِّيَّةِ ولِكُلِّ امْرِىءٍ ما نَوَى فَمَنْ كانَتْ هِجْرَتُهُ إلى اللَّهِ ورسولِهِ فَهِجْرَتُهُ إلى اللَّهِ ورسولِهِ ومَنْ كانَتْ هِجْرَتُهُ لدنْيَا يُصِيبُهَا أو امْرَأَةٍ يَتَزَوَّجُها فَهِجْرَتُهُ إلى ما هاجَرَ إِليهِ

Narrated by Hadhrat Umar bin Khattab (RA)

Allâh's Apostle (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) said, "The reward of deeds depends upon the intention and every person will get the reward according to what he has intended. So whoever emigrated for Allâh and His Apostle, his emigration was for Allâh and His Apostle. And whoever emigrated for worldly benefits or for a woman to marry, his emigration was for what he emigrated for."

Hadith No. 54

حدّثنا ( حَجَّاجُ بنُ مِنْهَال ) ٍ قال حدّثنا ( شُعْبَة ) ُ قال أخْبَرَنِي ( عَدِيُّ بنُ ثابِت ) ٍ قال سَمِعْتُ ( عبَد اللَّهِ بنَ يَزِيد ) َ عنْ ( أبي مَسْعُود ) ٍ عنِ النبيِّ قال إذا أنْفَقَ الرَّجُلُ على أهْلِهِ يَحْتَسِبُها فَهُوَ لَهُ صَدَقَةٌ

Narrated by Hadhrat Abu Mas'ud (RA)

The Prophet (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) said, "If a man spends on his family (with the intention of having a reward from Allâh) sincerely for Allâh's sake then it is a (kind of) alms-giving in reward for him.

Hadith No. 55

حدّثنا ( الحَكَمُ بنُ نافع ) ٍ قال أخْبَرَنَا ( شُعَيْب ) ٌ عنِ ( الزُّهْرِي ) ِّ قال حدّثني ( عامِرُ بنُ سَعْد ) ٍ عنْ ( سَعْدِ بنِ أبي وَقاص ) ٍ أنَّهُ أخْبَرَهُ أنّ رسول اللَّهِ قال إنَّكَ لَنْ تُنْفِقَ نَفَقَةً تَبْتَغِي بِها وَجْهَ اللَّهِ إلاَّ أُجِرْتَ عَليْها حتَّى ما تَجْعَلُ فِي فم امْرَأَتِكَ

Narrated by Sa'd bin Abi Waqqas (RA)

Allâh's Apostle (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) said, "You will be rewarded for whatever you spend for Allâh's sake even if it were a morsel which you put in your wife's mouth."

Comments

What came in the saying "the reward of the deeds depends upon the intention and seeking the reward from Allâh.

This is the first part of Tarjamatul Bâb. al-Hisbah (الحسبه) means to do a deed with the intention of seeking reward from Allâh. Ibn Hajar says that Imâm Bukhari considers Imân as a deed, so according to him Niyyat or intention is necessary for it (Imân) as well as it is required for rest of the deeds like Salâh, Zakâh and Hajj etc. Ibn Hajar further says that if Imân is taken as testifying by heart (Tasdeeq), then Niyyat is not needed for it as one does not make intention for fear and love of Allâh. The same view is held by Hanafi school of thought that Niyyat is not needed for Imân.

There is consensus among the Ummah that Niyyat is important for deeds like Salâh, Zakâh, Saum (fasting) and Hajj etc., but there is difference of opinion as to whether it is important for Wudhu or not. Imâm Bukhari has included Wudhu also in those deeds for which Niyyat is a must while as according to Hanafi school of thought actual deed is Salâh for which Niyyat is a must and since Wudhu is for Salâh and is not aimed primarily, hence it is not necessary to make Niyyat for it i.e., they say that Wudhu is not "independent purpose" (مقصود بالذات).

Ibn Hajar says that Niyyat is important in all those deeds which are done mutually like trade, Nikah and Talâq etc. Allâmah Aini does not agree with Ibn Hajar on this point.

قُلْ كُلٌّ يَعْمَلُ عَلَى شَاكِلَتِهِ

Say: "Everyone acts according to his own disposition: but your Lord knows best who it is that is best guided on the Way." (17:84)

In this verse the word Shakilatihi (شَاكِلَتِه) has been translated by Imâm Bukhari as intention. Then the meaning of the verse would be that everyone acts as per his intention. Same translation has been quoted from Hasani Bisri and Qatâdah whereas Mujâhid translates it as nature (طبيعات). In short it would mean that every one acts as per his intention, nature and religion and Allâh, being all knowing, knows the best as to who is on the right path.

Spending on one's family

And the spending of a man on his family with the intention of having a reward from Allâh, will be rewarded as alms (Sadqah).

This is related to the second part of the Tarjamatul Bâb i.e., Al-Hisbah. It means that if one feeds his family and at the same time makes the intention of seeking reward from Allâh, it will fetch him more reward.

"But Jihâd and intention."

This is related to the third part of the Tarjamatul Bâb. This is the part of a Hadith from Ibn Abbas (RA) in which he says that after the victory of Makkah, when people embraced Islâm they felt regretted not having embraced Islâm earlier so that they could also have got the reward of Hijrah (migration). On this Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) said:

لا هجرة بعد الفتح و لكن جهاد و نية

"There is no Hijrah (migration) after victory (of Makkah), but Jihâd and intention."

Ulema say that it means that though there is no Hijrah now but one can still get reward by making the Niyyat for his deeds and also by participating in Jihâd in which also one has to leave the home.

باب قَوْلِ النبيِّ الدِّينُ النَّصِيحَةُ للَّهِ ولِرَسُولِهِ ولأَئِمَّةِ المُسْلِمِينَ وعامَّتِهِمْ وقولِهِ تعالى إذا نَصَحُوا للَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ

Chapter (Bâb) 43 : The saying of the Prophet (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) "religion is exhortation to Allâh, to Allâh's Apostle (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam), to the leaders of Muslims and to the common Muslims". And the saying of Allâh, "If they are sincere (in duty) to Allâh and His Apostle (9:91)

Purpose of Tarjamatul Bâb and its status

Imâm Bukhari has ended the Kitab-ul-Imân (chapter on faith) with a very comprehensive and great Hadith. The words of the Tarjamatul Bâb are the words of Hadith but Imâm Bukhari has not included this Hadith in his book whereas Imâm Muslim has mentioned this Hadith in Muslim Sharief. Imâm Muhammad bin Aslam al-Toosi has included this Hadith in those four Ahâdith which he believed enough for one's Deen. Imâm Nawawi says that this Hadith alone is enough.

Hadith No. 56

حدّثنا ( مُسَدَّد ) ٌ قالَ حدّثنا ( يَحْيَى ) عَنْ ( إسْمَاعِيل ) َ قالَ حدّثني ( قَيْسُ بنُ أبي حَازِم ) ٍ عَنْ ( جَرِيرِ بْنِ عبْدِ اللَّه ) ِ قال بَايَعْتُ رسولَ اللَّهِ علَى إِقَامِ الصَّلاَةِ وإِيتَاءِ الزَّكاةِ والنُّصْحِ لِكُلِّ مُسْلِمٍ

Narrated by Hadhrat Jarir bin Abdullah (RA)

I made the pledge of allegiance to Allâh's Apostle (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) for the following:

offer prayers perfectly

pay the Zakâh (obligatory charity)

and be sincere and true to every Muslim.

Hadith No. 57

حدّثنا ( أبُو النُّعْمان ) ِ قال حدثنا ( أبُو عَوَانَة ) َ عَنْ ( زِيَادِ بْنِ عِلاقَة ) َ قال سَمِعْتُ جَرِيرَ بْنَ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ يَقُولُ يَوْمَ مَاتَ المُغِيرَةُ بْنُ شُعْبَةَ قَامَ فَحمِدَ اللَّهَ وأثْنَى عَلَيْهِ وقالَ عَلَيْكُمْ بِإِتّقَاءِ اللَّهِ وحْدَهُ لاَ شَرِيكَ لَهُ والوَقَارِ والسَّكِينَةِ حَتَّى يأْتِيَكُمُ أميرٌ فإِنَّماَ يأْتِيكُمْ الآْنَ ثُمَّ قالَ اسْتَعْفُوا لامِيركُمْ فإِنَّهُ كانَ يُحِبُّ العَفْوَ ثُمَّ قالَ أمّا بَعْدُ فإِنِّي أتَيْتُ النبيِّ قُلْتُ أُبَايِعُكَ عَلَى الإِسْلاَمِ فَشَرَطَ عَلَيَّ والنُّصْحِ لِكُلِّ مُسْلِمٍ فَبَايَعْتُهُ عَلَى هَذَا ورَبِّ هَذَا المَسْجِدِ إنِّي لَنَاصِحٌ لَكُمْ ثُمَّ اسْتَغْفَرَ وَنَزَلَ

Narrated by Ziyâb bin Ilâqa (RA)

I heard Jarir bin 'Abdullah (Praising Allâh). On the day when Al-Mughira bin Shu'ba died, he (Jarir) got up (on the pulpit) and thanked and praised Allâh and said, "Be afraid of Allâh alone Who has none along with Him to be worshipped. (You should) be calm and quiet till the (new) cheif comes to you and he will come to you soon. Ask Allâh's forgiveness for your (late) cheif because he himself loved to forgive others." Jarir added, "Amma badu (now then), I went to the Prophet and said, 'I give my pledge of allegiance to you for Islâm." The Prophet conditioned (my pledge) for me to be sincere and true to every Muslim so I gave my pledge to him for this. By the Lord of this mosque! I am sincere and true to you (Muslims). Then Jarir asked for Allâh's forgiveness and came down (from the pulpit).

Comments

To be sincere to Allâh

Ibn Hajar quotes in Fathul Bâri that once the Disciples of Hadhrat Eisâ (AS) asked him ,"O! Roohullah, who is Nâsih (ناصح) to Allâh?" (When this word "An-Naseehah" is used in relation to Allâh, it does not mean advice, as Allâh needs no adviser.) Hadhrat Eisâ (AS) said, "One who gives preference to the rights of Allâh over the rights of people. Being sincere to Allâh means to believe in Him as taught by Rasulullah not to attribute any partners to Him, to follow His commands sincerely, to refrain from His forbidden things and to love and fear Him.

To be sincere to al-Qur'ân

To believe that it is the word of Allâh, its every word is guarded by Allâh from any addition or alteration and that it is not like the word of creation. To recite it with Imân and Ahtesâb and to take lessons from it.

To be sincere to Allâh's Apostle (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam)

It means to believe in everything that Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) came with. To believe him as the seal of Prophethood and to follow his Sunnah sincerely.

To be sincere to the Imâms (leaders and rulers) of Muslims

It means to obey them as long as they do not order that thing which is sinful in Shari'ah, to offer Salâh behind them and to advise them if found to be negligent.

Ulema and Mujtahideen can also be included in this category.

To be sincere to the common Muslims

It means to teach them Deen, be kind to them, wish for them as one wishes for one's own self and to exhort them for the right things and to stop them from bad things etc.