Kitabul Imaan - Chapter 9 - 22 (Hadith 15 - 29)
باب - حَلاَوَةِ الإِيمَانِ
Chapter (Bâb) 9: Sweetness of Imân (faith)
ـ حدّثنا ( مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ المُثَنَّى ) قالَ حدثنا ( عَبْدُ الْوَهَّابِ الثَّقفِي ) ُّ قال حدثنا ( أيُّوب ) ُ عَنْ ( أبِي قِلاَبَة ) َ عَنْ ( أنَس ) ٍ عَنِ النَّبي قالَ ثَلاَثٌ مَنْ كُنَّ فِيهِ وَجَدَ حَلاَوَةَ الإِيمَانِ أنْ يَكُونَ اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ أَحَبَّ إِلَيْهِ مِمَّا سِوَاهُمَا وَأَنْ يُحِبَّ الْمَرَءَ لاَ يُحِبُّهُ إلاَّ لِلَّهِ وَأنْ يَكَرَهُ أنْ يَعُودَ فِي الكُفْرِ كَمَا يَكَرَهَ أنْ يُقْذَفَ فِي النَّارِ
The Prophet said, "Whoever possesses the following three qualities will have the sweetness (delight) of faith: The one to whom Allâh and His Apostle becomes dearer than anything else. Who loves a person and he loves him only for Allâh's sake. Who hates to revert to Atheism (disbelief) as he hates to be thrown into the fire."
Ibn Hajar says that Imâm Bukhari wants to convey that the sweetness of Imân is among the fruits of Imân. In previous Hadith he mentioned that the love of Rasulullah is an essential part of Imân, now he mentions the things which will make this Imân sweet.
In this Hadith Rasulullah has proved sweetness for Imân. Man is naturally attracted towards sweet things like honey etc. For enjoying the sweet taste of a thing one needs to have bodily health in perfect order and for appreciating the sweetness of Imân one needs to have healthy spiritual status. Spiritually diseased man cannot appreciate this sweetness.
Is this sweetness tasted physically or spiritually?
Imâm Nawwavi says that Ulema are of the opinion that the tasting of this sweetness is spiritual and not physical. This tasting of this sweetness means the development of performing the acts of Shari'ah, patience for tolerating the hardships and giving preference to Hereafter over the mundane world.
Letter of Hadhrat Gangohi to Haji Imâmdadullah (RA)
Hadhrat Gangohi wrote to his spiritual teacher Haji Imâmdadullah:
"1. It doesn't affect me anyway if a person praises or criticizes me. Both these things seem same to me.
2. I feel no inclination that anyone other than Allâh can harm or benefit me.
3. Shari'ah has become my nature.
This is known as the sweetness of Imân that he was feeling solace and happiness in fulfilling the commands of Shari'ah.
Some other Sufi Ulema believe that this sweetness is physical.
Hadhrat Mawlânâ Fadhl-ur-Rahman Ganj Muradabadi, a great Muhaddith, Sufi saint and one of the students of Shah Ishâq used to say:
"When I prostate, I feel as if Allâh Ta'âlâ kisses me."
Subhân-Allah, these things can only be understood by those who experience these things, it is incomprehensible for others to appreciate these things.
Three things which create Halawat (sweetness) in Imân
1. To have love for Allâh and His Rasul more than anything else
Allâh Ta'âlâ is the main source of love as He is the absolute Creator, Cherisher, Nourisher and Provider of everything to mankind. After Allâh Ta'âlâ if anyone deserves the maximum love that is the personality of Rasulullah because no one else has been as generous to mankind as Rasulullah. This love of Allâh Ta'âlâ and Rasulullah is most effective in creating the taste of sweetness in Imân.
2. To love others only for the sake of Allâh
When one loves Allâh and Rasulullah, he should love others only for the sake of Allâh, this is also a part of the love of Allâh. It means to love those who are pious and beloved ones of Allâh.
Yahyâ bin Muadh says:
حقيقة الحب بي الله لا يزيد بالبر ولا بالجفاة
"Loving for the sake of Allâh is a kind of love, that neither increases nor decreases due to anybody's good or bad behaviour."
It means that if you love someone for the sake of Allâh, it should not get affected by his good or bad attitude towards you.
Imâm Mâlik says:
ألمحبة في الله من واجبات الإسلام وهو دأب الأولياء الله تعالى
"Loving for the sake of Allâh is among the obligatory things of Islâm and it is the practice of Awliyâ-Allah".
3. To feel disgusted to adopt Atheism (disbelief):
When one's heart gets filled with the love of Allâh and Rasulullah, his Imân becomes so sweet that he adores Islâm the most and consequently dislikes the Atheism. It can be observed from the life accounts of Sahâbah that for them to adopt Atheism again after they had embraced Islâm, it was disgusting to them the same way as one feels disgusted to be thrown into the fire.
باب - عَلاَمَةُ الإِيمَانِ حُبُّ الأنصار
Chapter (Bâb) 10: The love for the Ansâr is a sign of Imân
Hadith No. 16
حدّثنا ( أبُو الْوَلِيد ) ِ قال حدثنا ( شُعْبَة ) ُ قال أخْبَرَنِي ( عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْن ) ِ قال ( جَبر ) ٍ سَمْعتُ ( أنَسا ) ً عَن النَّبي قال آيَةُ الإِيمَانِ حُبُّ الأَنْصَارِ وآيَةُ النِّفَاق بُغْضُ الأَنْصارِ
Narrated Anas (RA)
The Prophet said, "Love for Ansâr is a sign of faith and hatred for Ansâr is a sign of hypocrisy."
In the previous Hadith it was stated that loving others for the sake of Allâh begets the sweetness of Imân. In this Hadith a special group of people is mentioned who offered unprecedented sacrifices for the sake of Allâh and His Messenger. These are the people of Madinah of the time of Rasulullah, called Al-Ansâr which means helpers. Imâm Bukhari here conveys that if any one deserves love for the sake of Allâh, amongst them Ansâr precede all. The second thing Imâm Bukhari tries to convey is that Imân is not any kind of materialistic thing which can be seen, it can only be judged with the help of some signs and one of its important signs is the loving the helpers (i.e., Al-Ansâr) of Rasulullah.
Al-Ansâr:The Ansâr belonged to the tribes of ‘Ous and Khadhraj. Farming was their main occupation, hence were called "the farmers". When Rasulullah was teased too much by the Makkans, he got disappointed about them and turned towards the people of Madinah. During the Hajj period he met some people from Madinah and presented to them the message of Islâm which appealed to them. In Madinah these people used to hear from the Jews that the last Messenger was to come. When they heard Rasulullah, they felt that he was the Prophet about whom Jews used to say. They decided to embrace Islâm before the Jews and readily accepted Islâm. They were six persons from Madinah who met Rasulullah at Aqaba near Mina and embraced Islâm there. Next year twelve leaders from Madinah came and embraced Islâm at the same place Aqaba, this is called "Bai'at Aqaba-Awla". At this instance, Rasulullah sent Hadhrat Musai'b bin Umair with them to Madinah to teach them Al-Qur'ân. During the third year 75 people came and embraced Islâm at the same place at the hands of Rasulullah, this is called "Aqaba Thâni". On this occasion Rasulullah was invited to Madinah by these people. Rasulullah went to Madinah after Hijrah (Migration) from Makkah under the Divine command alongwith the Muslims of Makkah called Muhâjireen. The manner in which the Ansâr received Rasulullah and treated the Muhâjireen, is unparallel in the human history. They shared everything with their Muhâjireen brothers including houses, farms, orchards etc. Not only that, if anyone among Ansâr had two wives, he divorced one and gifted that to his Muhâjir brother. They dedicated and sacrificed their lives for the sake of Islâm. It is natural for any sincere Muslim to love such selfless helpers of Islâm. Rasulullah said:
ألأنصار شعار و الناس دثار
"Ansâr are like the inner garments of a body and rest of people like the outer". (Musnad Ahmad)
What about Muhâjireen?
The excellences of Muhâjireen are manifold; they left everything including their motherland and homes for the sake of Islâm. The significance of Hijrah in Islâm is tremendous. A Hadith says:
لو لا هجرة لكنت أمرء من الأنصار
"Had there been no Hijrah, I would have been a person from Al-Ansâr." (Bukhari)
From this Hadith one can imagine the significance of Hijrah and that of Muhâjireen.
باب - بلا ترجمة الباب
Chapter (Bâb) 11: Chapter without Tarjamatul Bâb
Hadith No. 17
حدّثنا ( أبُو اليَمَان ) قال أخبْرَنَا ( شُعَيْب ) ٌ عن ( الزُّهْرِي ) ّ قال أخْبَرَنِي ( أبُو إدْرِيسَ عَائِذُ اللَّهِ بِنُ عبدِ اللَّه ) ِ أنْ ( عُبادَةَ بنَ الصَّامِت ) ِ رضي الله عنه وكان شَهِدَ بَدْراً وهُو أحَدُ النُّقَبَاءِ لَيْلَةَ العَقَبَةِ أنَّ رسولَ اللَّهِ قال وحَوْلَهُ عِصابَةٌ مِنْ أصْحَابِهِ بايِعُونِي على أن لاَ تُشْرِكُوا باللَّهِ شَيْئاً ولاَ تَسْرِقوا لاَ تَزْنُوا وَلاَ تَقْتلُوا أوْلاَدَكُمْ وَلاَ تَأتُوا بِبُهْتَانٍ تَفْترُونَهُ بَيْنَ أيْدِيكُمْ وأرْجُلِكُمْ ولا تَعْصُوا في مَعْرُوفٍ فمنْ وَفَى مِنْكُمْ فأجْرُهُ على اللَّهِ وَمَنْ أَصابَ مِن ذلكَ شَيْئاً فَعُوقِبَ في الدُّنيْا فَهُوَ كفَّارَةٌ لَهُ وَمنْ أصابَ مِنْ ذلكَ شَيْئاً ثم سَتَرَهُ اللَّهُ فَهُوَ إلَى اللَّهِ إن شاءَ عَفَا عَنْه وإن شاءَ عَاقَبَهُ فَبَايَعْناهُ على ذلكَ
Narrated Ubada bin As-Sâmat
On the night of Al-'Aqaba pledge: Allâh's Apostle said while a group of his companions were around him, "Swear allegiance before me for:
Not to join anything in worship along with Allâh.
Not to steal.
Not to commit illegal sexual intercourse.
Not to kill your children.
Not to accuse an innocent person (to spread such an accusation among people).
Not to be disobedient (when ordered) to do good deed."
The Prophet added: "Whoever among you fulfills his pledge will be rewarded by Allâh. And whoever indulges in any one of them (except the ascription of partners to Allâh) and gets the punishment in this world, that punishment will be expiation for that sin. And if one indulges in any of them, and Allâh conceals his sin, it is up to Him to forgive or punish him (in the Hereafter)." ‘Ubada bin As-Samit added: "So we swore allegiance for these." (points before Allâh's Apostle)
Chapter (Bâb) without Tarjamatul Bâb
This is the first Bâb (chapter) in this book which is without a title or Tarjamatul Bâb. There are so many places in Bukhari Sharief where Imâm Bukhari has not mentioned anything in Tarjamatul Bâb. Ulema have given many reasons for it, viz.,
Author has forgotten it.
2. Author has not forgotten but the compiler has forgotten it.
Narrator has done some over indulgence.
Ibn Hajar says that the author had left space for it but could not get time latter to complete it.
Majority of scholars like Ibn Hajar, Allâmah Ayni, Allâmah Qastalâni, Allâmah Kirmâni and Shah Muhaddith Delhvi say that such Bâbs or chapters are the continuation of previous chapters, hence no new name has been mentioned. Ibn Hajar has proved it at about forty places. But this does not hold true everywhere.
Hadhrat Sheikh ul Hind says that Imâm Bukhari has done so to test others and to keep the reader's interest intact.
It is done to avoid increase in the number of chapters.
Sometimes there arises some doubt, to clear that Imâm Bukhari gets another chapter without title and answers that doubt.
It is done for returning to the original topic. Imâm Bukhari starts some topic and then gets some other narrations which do not seem to be of the same topic and then in order to return to the original topic he does so.
Shah Waliullah says that Imâm Bukhari uses it at places where Muhadditheen use letter Hâ ‘ح'. (Kashful Bâri)
Purpose of Bâb (without Tarjamatul Bâb)
Here it is like the continuation of previous Bâb. In the previous Bâb Imâm Bukhari said that the love of Ansâr is a sign of Imân. In this Bâb he wants to highlight the reason behind this extraordinary status of Ansâr. As per him, it is the pledge they took at the hands of Rasulullah to help him under all circumstances.
Narrator-Ubada bin Sâmat (RA)
He was famous Sahâbi from Ansâr who took part in the battle of Badr and was a Naqib (a person heading a group of six persons). He was present during "Aqba Awla and Aqbq Thâni". He took part in all battles including Badr, Uhud, Khandaq with Rasulullah. He was among the twelve heralds of Madinah. He used to teach the Qur'ân to the people of Sufa. He went to Palestine and was appointed as the first Qadhi (Judge) there. One hundred and eighty Ahâdith have been quoted from him, out of which six are "Mutafaqun Alaihi" (agreed upon by Bukhari and Muslim). He died in 34 Hijrah at Ramala or Baitul Maqdis. (Kashful Bâri)
Excellences of Ubadah bin Sâmat (RA)
Hadhrat Ubadah bin Sâmat (RA) participated in the battle of Badr and was one of the heralds (Naqeebs) which were appointed by Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) there. These were from that group of Ansâr who had met Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) during Aqaba Thâni ‘عقبة الثاني' at Aqaba near Mina. In these words the peculiar excellences of Ubadah bin Sâmat are mentioned
It means a group of people who are from ten to forty in number.
What is Bay'at?
Bay'at is to take pledge at the hands of Rasulullah or any of his strict followers. It means to try to follow the Shari'ah strictly. It is taken for attaining the excellence in following the Shari'ah with sole intention of pleasing Allâh Ta'âlâ. Allâh Ta'âlâ says:-
إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يُبَايِعُونَكَ إِنَّمَا يُبَايِعُونَ اللَّهَ
"Verily those who plight theit fealty to thee, their fealty in truth to Allâh." (48:10)
It was at the time of Hudhaibia that Muslims were feeling disappointed and Rasulullah took the fealty from them. They placed their hands at the hand of Rasulullah and the Hand of Allâh was over them. This gave them a great moral support and strength. In fact Bay'at is taken for getting this moral support and spiritual strength. So Bay'at should always be taken at the hands of those pious men only, who are strict followers of Rasulullah. It should never be taken at the hands of those who are not following Shari'ah in the real sense of the word like ignorant Sufis and Darveshs etc. Such people usually make this sacred thing a means for their business.
Rasulullah acknowledged Bay'at from his companions for various things like Jehad, Salâh, Zakâh, avoiding sins etc.
Instance at which this Bay'at (pledge) was taken?
Qadhi Ayyâz and others say that this pledge was taken during the night of Aqaba while as Ibn Hajar and others say that it was taken after the victory of Makkah and not during the night of Aqaba.
Matters on which Bay'at was taken
Shirk: على أن تشرك با لله شياء
The oath was taken for not indulging in Shirk. It is unacceptable to Islâm. Islâm believes in the Unity of Allâh and that He has no partners. Islâm has cut the roots of all kinds of Shirk, whether it may be in the form of assigning partners to Allâh as far as His essence is concerned, or in His attributes or in His deeds. All forms of Shirk are unacceptable to Islâm. Even hypocrisy is considered as Shirk in Islâm. That is why pledge on avoiding Shirk was taken prior to all.
Theft: ولا تسرقوا
Theft is a grave sin in Islâm, its punishment in Islâm is to chop off the hands of thief.
Adultery: ولا تزنوا
Adultery is destructive for any civilized society. It is highly condemned and prohibited in Islâm. Its punishment for unmarried person is 100 lashes and for married is Rajam i.e., stoning to death.
Killing of children: ولا تقتلوا أولادكم
Killing an Innocent: Killing of any innocent person is a grave sin in Islâm. Here children are mentioned in particular, because killing of children is all the more grave as they are not only innocent but they are also very weak moreover one has blood relation with the children. In Arabia, it had become routine to kill children, not only that but they used to bury them alive. To prevent the Muslims from this grave crime, they were made to take pledge for not indulging in this sin.
Buhtân (False Allegation): وَلاَ تَأتُوا بِبُهْتَانٍ تَفْترُونَهُ بَيْنَ أيْدِيكُمْ وأرْجُلِكُمْ
Buhtan means to make baseless or false allegations against someone. Since one cooks it in his heart that is why the words "between your hands and feet" are used. Some people say that "between your hands and feet" refers to adultery because the concerned organ for adultery is between hands and feet. There were such ladies at that time also who conceived after illegal contacts and wrongly attributed the foetus to their husbands. Making all sorts of baseless allegations is strongly prohibited in Islâm.
Not to be disobedient to do good deed ولا تعصوا في معروف
What is Ma'roof ?
Some people say it refers to that thing which has been labelled good by the Shari'ah.
Every good deed is called Ma'roof.
Piety or Taqwâ are called Ma'roof.
Ma'roof is that thing which has not been forbidden by Shari'ah.
Ibn-ul Aseer in An-Nihaya says,
"Ma'roof is a comprehensive term which includes all those deeds identified by the Shari'ah as permissible like Faraidh, Mandoobât, Ikhlaq or Aadab as well as those things which have been forbidden." (Kashf ul Bâri)
So, in this Hadith it has been advised that one should not leave behind or consider as ordinary any good deed. Another Hadith says:
لا طاعة في معصية الله
"No obedience (to creation is recommended) which amounts to disobedience of Allâh (Creator)".
فمن و في منكم فأجره على الله
"One who fulfills all these promises, he will get the reward from Allâh."
و من أصاب من ذالك شياء فعوقب في الدنيا فهو كفارة له
"One who commits a sin and gets punishment in this world, that punishment will serve as Kaffarah (expiation) for him."
Does worldly punishment serve as Kaffarah for Shirk?:
In this Hadith the first thing mentioned is Shirk. Here the question arises, will worldly punishment serve as Kaffarah for Shirk also. Ulema have given different answers, some Ulema are of the opinion that here Shirk refers to Shirk-i-Asgar (i.e., Riya or Hypocrisy) as only Muslims are the addressed. Others say that Shirk-i-Akbar (i.e, Infidelity) is focused here but worldly punishment cannot serve as Kaffarah for it as it has been totally excluded by a verse of the Holy Qur'ân,
Do Hudood (boundaries, limits) serve as Kaffarah
If someone commits a major sin like murder, plunder or theft and is punished as per the Shari'ah, will that punishment serve as Kaffarah for him? There are different opinions of Ulema regarding this. Scholars like Mujâhid, Sufiyan Thouri, Imâm Shâfa'ee, Imâm Ahmad, Imâm Bukhari and many other Muhadditheen believe that the Hudood serve as Kaffarah, whereas the scholars like Sa'eed ibn Musaib, Abu Abdullah bin Taymia and others believe that they don't.
Balanced view point of Allâmah Kashmiri
Allâmah Kashmiri Mawlânâ Anwar Shah (RA) there can be three situations, viz.,
1. If a person after receiving punishment as a part of Had makes Tawbah (repentance), then this Had will serve as Kaffarah.
2. If a person does not make Tawbah but feels sorry for his deed and does not intend to repeat that sin again, this will also serve as Kaffarah for him.
3. If a person neither makes Tawbah nor he stops doing that crime, then Had will not serve as Kaffarah for him (and Allâh knows the best).
و من أصاب من ذالك ثم ستره الله فهو إلى الله أن شاء عفا عنه و أن شاء عاقبه
If some one does some crime and then Allâh Ta'âlâ conceals his crime, then it is the wish of Allâh whether He forgives him or punishes him.
باب - مِنَ الدِّينِ الفِرَارُ مِنَ الفِتَنِ
Chapter (Bâb) 12: To flee (run away) from afflictions is a part of religion.
Hadith No. 18
حدّثنا ( عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بنُ مَسْلَمَة ) َ عنْ ( مالِك ) ٍ عنْ ( عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بنِ أبي صَعْصَعَة ) َ عنْ أبِيهِ عن (أبِي سَعِيدٍ الخُدْرِي ) ِّ أنَّهُ قال قال رسولُ الله يُوشِكُ أن يَكُونَ خَيْرَ مالِ المُسِلِم غَنَمٌ يَتْبَعُ بِهَا شَعَفَ الجِبالِ ومَوَاقِعَ القَطْرِ يَفِرُّ بدِينِهِ مِنَ الفِتَنِ
Narrated by Hadhrat Sa'eed al-Khudri (RA)
Allâh's Apostle (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) said, "A time will come that the best property of a Muslim will be sheep which he will take on the top of mountains and the places of rainfall (valleys) so as to flee with his religion from afflictions".
Narrator-Hadhrat Abu Sa'eed al_Khudri (RA)
Hadhrat Abu Sa'eed Khudri (RA) is amongst the famous companions of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam). He was the son of Hadhrat Malik bin San'an (RA) who was martyred in the battle of Uhud. Abu Sa'eed Khudri (RA) also wanted to participate in Uhud battle but was sent back as he was too young. Later he took part in 12 battles. He has quoted Hadith from the four Khulfa-i-Râshideen (RA) and his father. People like Ibn Abbas, Ibn Umar (RA) and many Tâba'een have quoted Hadith from him. There are almost eleven hundred and seventy Hadith quoted from him and out of these forty six are Muttafaqun Alaihi. He died in 64 or 74 Hijrah and was buried in the grave yard of Baqee in Madinah.
Purpose of Tarjamatul Bâb and its relation with chapters
Imâm Bukhari wants to convey that to run away from society with the intention of saving one's Imân is also a part of Imân. Secondly he has used the word Deen here instead of Imân or Islâm as all the three words as per him are synonyms. The deeds are of two types viz., ‘Do's' and ‘Don'ts', to run away from society is from the latter type (i.e from don'ts).
What is Fitnah (affliction-فتنة)?
When sins become so common in a society that these are no longer considered sins and it becomes very very difficult to stay on the path of piety, such a situation is called affliction. There are so many Ahâdith which have made the mention of afflictions which will become prevalent in this Ummah near the day of judgement. A Hadith quoted in Tirmidhi and Abu Dawood says that the afflictions will descend on this Ummah as the rain falls and another Hadith says that, at such times, it would be as difficult to remain on Deen as it is difficult to hold the burning coal in hand and a person will be Believer in the morning and Disbeliever in the evening. In nutshell Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) made many predictions about the afflictions involving the Ummah. People asked Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) as to what should they do if they came across such situation? Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) told them that in such circumstances only those can save their Imân who would run away from the society and would take refuge on the mountain tops.
Does Islâm teach Rahbâniyat (رهبانية)?
No, Islâm does not teach Rahbâniyat. Rahbâniyat means to leave the society and to go to solitude with the intention of earning Thawâb and salvation as they believe it is not possible to get these things while staying with the people. This defeats the very purpose of the creation. Islâm on the other hand emphasises that the best form of worship is in the service of mankind. Now what is mentioned in this Hadith about the shunning away of society is permissible in those circumstances only in which it becomes extremely difficult to stay with piety in society.
What is better-solitude or society?
Islâm stresses on its followers to stay in the society and to work for the betterment of it. If a person has the capability of reforming the society, it will be obligatory upon him to stay in the society. It is permissible for a person of weak Imân and weak will power to take refuge in solitude to save his Imân. The incident of the people of the Cave (Ashâb-i-Kahaf) mentioned in the Qur'an illustrates this point quite clearly,
إِذْ أَوَى الْفِتْيَةُ إِلَى الْكَهْفِ فَقَالُوا رَبَّنَا آتِنَا مِنْ لَدُنْكَ رَحْمَةً وَهَيِّئْ لَنَا مِنْ أَمْرِنَا رَشَدًا
Behold the youths betook themselves to the Cave: they said "Our Lord! bestow on us Mercy from Thyself and dispose of our affair for us in the right way! (18:10)
وَرَبَطْنَا عَلَى قُلُوبِهِمْ إِذْ قَامُوا فَقَالُوا رَبُّنَا رَبُّ السَّمَوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ لَنْ نَدْعُوَ مِنْ دُونِهِ إِلَهًا لَقَدْ قُلْنَا إِذًا شَطَطًا () هَؤُلَاءِ قَوْمُنَا اتَّخَذُوا مِنْ دُونِهِ آلِهَةً لَوْلَا يَأْتُونَ عَلَيْهِمْ بِسُلْطَانٍ بَيِّنٍ فَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّنِ افْتَرَى عَلَى اللَّهِ كَذِبًا ()
"We relate to thee their story in truth: they were youths who believed in their Lord and We advanced them in guidance: We gave strength to their hearts: Behold they stood up and said: "Our Lord is the Lord of the heavens and of the earth: never shall we call upon any god other than Him: if we did; we should indeed have uttered an enormity!" These our people have taken for worship gods other than Him: why do they not bring forward an authority clear (and convincing) for what they do? Who doth more wrong than such as invent a falsehood against Allâh? (18: 13-15)
These people left the society when they found that it was difficult for them to save their Imân in the society and Allâh helped them.
Why Ganam (Sheep) have been specified in this Hadith?
"A time will come that the best property of a Muslim will be sheep which he will take on the top of mountains and the places of rainfall (valleys) so as to flee with his religion from afflictions."
The sheep are very useful to man, these are easy to rear particularly on mountain tops, there is self feeding for them. One can use their skin for clothing and bedding, their milk and meat for diet. Sheep have humility in their nature, so one gets this thing in their company. It is reported that all prophets have reared the sheep.
باب - قَوْلِ النبي أَنَا أَعْلَمُكُمْ بالله وأنَّ المَعْرِفَةَ فِعْلُ القَلْبِ لِقَوْلِ اللَّهِ تعالى ولَكِنْ يُؤَاخِذُكُمْ بِما كَسَبَتْ قُلُوبُكُمْ
Chapter (Bâb) 13: The sayings of Prophet "I know Allâh better than all of you do and knowledge is the act of Qalb as per the sayings of Allâh:"Bue he will call you to account for what your hearts have earned". (2:225)
Hadith No. 19
حدّثنا ( مُحَمَّدُ بنُ سَلاَم ) ٍ قال أخْبَرَنَا ( عَبْدَة ) ُ عنْ ( هِشام ) ٍ عنْ أبِيهِ عنْ ( عائِشَة ) َ قالتْ كانَ رسولُ اللَّهِ إذَا أَمَرَهُمْ أمَرَهُمْ مِنَ الأَعْمَالِ بِما يُطِيقُونَ قالوا إنَّا لسْنَا كَهْيَئتِكَ يا رسولَ اللَّهِ إنّ اللَّهَ قَدْ غَفَرَ لَكَ مَا تَقَدَّمَ مِنْ ذَنْبِكَ وما تَأخَّرَ فَيَغْضَبُ حَتى يُعْرَفَ الغَضَبُ في وجْهِهِ ثم يَقُولُ إنَّ أَتْقاكُمْ وأَعْلَمَكُمْ باللَّهِ أَنَا
Narrated by Hadhrat Aisah (RA)
"Whenever Allâh's Apostle (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) ordered the Muslims to do something, he used to order them deeds which were easy for them to do, (according to their strength endurance). They said, "O Allâh's Apostle! We are not like you. Allâh has forgiven your past and future sins." So Allâh's Apostle became angry and it was apparent on his face. He said, "I am the most Allâh fearing, and know Allâh better than all of you do."
Purpose of Tarjamatul Bâb
Here Imâm Bukhari has used two words viz., Ilm and Ma'ârifat. Many times these two words are used synonymously but there does exist a fine difference in the meaning of the two. Ilm is related to the proof of the attribute of the essence whereas the Ma'ârifat means to apply that knowledge to the essence which already exists in the memory, as the Jews were knowing Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) from their own books, as the Qur'an said:
الَّذِينَ آتَيْنَاهُمُ الْكِتَابَ يَعْرِفُونَهُ كَمَا يَعْرِفُونَ أَبْنَاءَهُمْ وَإِنَّ فَرِيقًا مِنْهُمْ لَيَكْتُمُونَ الْحَقَّ وَهُمْ يَعْلَمُونَ ()
"The people of the Book know him as they know their own sons" (2:146)
Here the word Ma'ârifat is used as they already had the knowledge of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) through their books. It is said that Ma'ârifat is pre-requisite for Imân whereas the Ilm is from the fruits of Imân. To believe something one has to know it first and that is the Ma'ârifat. After getting the Imân new horizons of knowledge open up and these come under the domain of Ilm. The Qur'an says:
يَرْفَعِ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مِنْكُمْ وَالَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْعِلْمَ دَرَجَاتٍ وَاللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيرٌ
Allâh will raise up to (suitable) ranks (and degrees) those of you who believe and who have been granted Knowledge: and Allâh is well-acquainted with all ye do. (58:11)
وَقُلْ رَبِّ زِدْنِي عِلْمًا
"O my Lord! advance me in knowledge." (20:114)
These verses show that the knowledge has different grades. Knowledge of common people, Awliyâ and Prophets is not same.
Ulema have raised the query as to why Imâm Bukhari here has established this Bâb? The answer given is that here Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) says: "I know Allâh better than all of you do". Aa'lamakum here the superlative degree is used, by this Imâm Bukhari wants to prove that the Ilm has many degrees or grades, so naturally it will decrease or increase. Since this Ilm is fruit of Imân, so he wants to convey that the Imân can decrease or increase.
Knowledge is the act of Qalb
In the second part of the Bâb Imâm Bukhari says that the knowledge is the act of Qalb. By this he wants to refute the claim of those who say that saying the article of faith by tongue i.e., Kalimah is enough for Imân. Imâm Bukhari says that only that Imân is authentic which is testified by the Qalb or in other words of which one has Ma'ârifat. Imâm Bukhari proves his point by the saying of Allâh,
وَلَكِنْ يُؤَاخِذُكُمْ بِمَا كَسَبَتْ قُلُوبُكُمْ
"But He will call you to account for what your hearts have earned." (2:225)
This Aayat does prove that the hearts do act as is evident by the words "your hearts have earned."
Hadhrat Aisha (RA) says that Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) used to order them those commands which were easy to perform. Islâm does not make any such thing obligatory on its believer which is beyond his capacity. A Hadith says:
"Allâh likes those deeds which are done with consistency even if these are less in number. "Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) used to exert too hard himself but would see to it that others get as much comfort and relaxations as were possible and within the permissible limits.
The Qur'an says:
لَقَدْ جَاءَكُمْ رَسُولٌ مِنْ أَنْفُسِكُمْ عَزِيزٌ عَلَيْهِ مَا عَنِتُّمْ حَرِيصٌ عَلَيْكُمْ بِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ رَءُوفٌ رَحِيمٌ ()
"Now hath come unto you an apostle from amongst yourselves: it grieves him that ye should perish: ardently anxious is he over you: to the believers is he most kind and merciful. "(9:128)
One day few people came to Hadhrat Aisha (RA) and asked her about the deeds of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam), she told them about the deeds of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam). They felt that their deeds were far less than those of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) when the fact was that that Allâh had forgiven all the faults, past or future, of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam), as per the saying of Allâh:
لِيَغْفِرَ لَكَ اللَّهُ مَا تَقَدَّمَ مِنْ ذَنْبِكَ وَمَا تَأَخَّرَ وَيُتِمَّ نِعْمَتَهُ عَلَيْكَ وَيَهْدِيَكَ صِرَاطًا مُسْتَقِيمًا ()
"That Allâh may forgive thee thy faults of the past and those to follow; fulfil His favour to thee; and guide thee on the Straight Way." (48:2)
One of them said that he would never sleep but would spent his nights always in Salâh, other said that he would always observe fast and the third one said that he would never go to his wife. After saying these things these people left and Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) came and heard that these people had told such and such things. He got very angry and called them back and asked if they had said such things? These people accepted of having said so and said: "O Allâh's Apostle! We are not like you. Allâh has forgiven your past and future sins." So Allâh's Apostle became angry and it was apparent on his face. He said, "I am the most Allâh fearing, and know Allâh better than all of you do."
Here one can see the desire of Sahâbah-al- Kirâm to do more and more Ibâdat and the kindness of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) over his Ummah.
"I am the most Allâh fearing, and know Allâh better than all of you do."
By saying so Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) conveys them that they should not equate themselves with him as he was fearing and knowing Allâh than anybody else. So, obviously one who knows Allâh most, he fears Him most. It was the special status of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam). He told them that, he despite being the most Allâh knowing and Allâh fearing, he still was eating sleeping, and doing other worldly affairs. So if shunning away of world was of any benefit he would have been the first to shun it away as he was knowing Allâh the most.
باب - مَنْ كَرِهَ أنْ يَعُودَ في الكُفْرِ كما يَكْرَهُ أن يُلْقَى في النارِ مِن الإِيمانِ
Chapter (Bâb) 14: One who hates to revert to disbelief as he hates to be thrown in fire, is from Imân.
Hadith No. 20
عن انس رضى الله عنه عن نبى صلى الله عليه وسلم قال ثلاث من كنّ فيه وجد حلاوة الإيمان ان يكون الله و رسوله أحب إليه ممّا سواهما و ان يحبّ المرءَ لا يحبّه إلا لله و ان يكره ان يعود في الكفر كما يكره ان يقذف في النّار
Narrated by Hadhrat Anas (RA)
The Prophet (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) said, "Whoever possesses the following three qualities will taste the sweetness of faith:
1. The one to whom Allâh and His Apostle become dearer than anything else.
2. Who loves a person and he loves him only for Allâh's sake.
3. Who hates to revert to disbelief (Atheism) after Allâh has brought (saved) him out from it, as he hates to be thrown in fire."
The similar Hadith has already been quoted in the chapter "Sweetness of Imân. Here it has been quoted with different chain and text. In the earlier chapter the desire of Sahâbah for more deeds was mentioned and in this Hadith it is said that greater the grade of Imân greater will be the love for Allâh and His Messenger, hence naturally for more good deeds and more hatred for displeasing Allâh, that is, Kufr. Second possibility is that in previous chapter "Firar Min al Fitnah" was mentioned as Deen and here "Firar Min al Kufr" is mentioned as Deen.
باب - تَفَاضُلِ أَهْلِ الإِيمانِ في الأَعْمَالِ
Chapter (Bâb) 15: Preference of believers as per their deeds.
Hadith No. 21
عن ابى سعيد خدرى رضى الله عنه عن نبى صلى الله عليه وسلم قال يدخل اهل الجنّة الجنه و اهل النّار النّار ثمّ يقول الله اخرجوا من كان فى قلبه مثقال حبة من خردل من ايمان فيخرجون منها قد اسودّوا فيلقون فى نخر الحيا او الحياة سكّ مالك فينبتون كما تنبت الحبّة فى حانب السّيل الم تر انّها تخرج صفراء ملتوية قال وهيب حدّثنا عمرو الحياة و قال خردل من خير
Narrated by Abu Sa'eed Al-Khudri (RA)
The Prophet (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) said, "When the people of Paradise will enter Paradise and the people of Hell will go to Hell, Allâh will order those who have had faith equal to the weight of a grain of mustard seed to be taken out from Hell. So they will be taken out but (by then) they will be blackened (charred). Then they will be put in the river of Hayâ' (rain) or Hayât (life) (the Narrator is in doubt as to which is the right term), and they will revive like a grain that grows near the bank of a flood channel. Don't you see that it comes out yellow and twisted"
Purpose of Tarjamatul Bâb
The status of believers differs as per their deeds, both in this world as well as in the Aakhirah. Sinners from amongst the believers will be thrown into Jahannam, as they have Imân in their hearts they will finally be taken out of the Jahannam and the sequence of their taking out will be as per their deeds. People with more good deeds will be taken out first. As Imân and Aimâl are same as per Imâm Bukhari, so Imân, as per him, is also of different grades.
On the day of judgement the pious believers will be taken to Jannah and the non believers and sinner believers will be thrown into Jahannam. As per another Hadith Allâh will put in the hearts of prophets and other pious believers that they should make intercession to Allâh in favour of these sinner believers so that they can be taken out of Jahannam. Allâh will tell them:
أخرجوا من كان بي قليه مثقال من حبة من خردل من الإيمان
"Take out (from Jahannam) one in whose heart there is Imân equal to (even) a speck."
Then, on their intercession, these people will be taken out of Jahannam in such a state that their bodies would be like charcoal. Before taking them to Jannah they will be thrown into a river which will be flowing just outside the gate of Jannah. The name of this River is either "Hiya" meaning rain or "Hayat" meaning life. Here the narrator had some doubt as to which of these two words was used in this Hadith. Once these people will be thrown into this river they will immediately get freshened and then will be taken into Jannah. This taking out of them will be as per their deeds, i.e., those people will be taken out first whose deeds will be better till only those people will remain who will have no deeds but only Imân. They will also be taken out till it will be told:"Take out (from Jahannam) one in whose heart there is Imân equal to (even ) a speck."
Only Allâh Ta'âlâ has Ilm ul Gaib (علم الغيب)
The intercessors will finally tell Allâh , "O Allâh, now no one from believers has remained in Jahannam". Allâh will take out many people even after that. This clearly shows that only Allâh knows the Unseen or Gaib. Ulema have given different opinions as to who will be these people whom Allâh will take out last. Ibn Arabi says that these will be those people, called Shawahiq al-Jibâl who were in the world on Tawheed and did not receive the Message of prophethood, Allâh knows the best.
Hadith No 22
حدّثنا ( مُحمدُ بنُ عُبَيْدِ اللَّه ) ِ قال حدّثنا ( إبْرَاهِيمُ بنُ سَعْد ) ٍ عن ( صالِح) عنِ ( ابن شِهاب ) ٍ عن ( أبي أُمامَةَ بنِ سَهْل ) ٍ أنَّهُ سَمِعَ ( أبا سَعِيدٍ الخُدْرِي ) يَقولُ قال رسولُ اللَّهِ بَيْنَا أنا نائِمٌ رَأْيْتُ الناسَ يُعْرَضُونَ عليَّ وَعَليهمْ قُمُصٌ مِنها ما يَبْلُغُ الثُّدِيَّ ومِنها ما دُونَ ذلِكِ وعُرِضَ عَلَيَّ عُمَرُ بنُ الخَطَّابِ وَعَلَيْهِ قَميصٌ يَجُرُّهُ قالوا فَمَا أَوّلْتَ ذلكَ يا رسولَ اللَّهِ قال الدِّينَ
Narrated by Abu Said Al Khudri
Allâh's Apostle said, "While I was sleeping I saw (in a dream) some people wearing shirts of which some were reaching up to the breasts only while others were even shorter than that. Umar bin Al-Khattab was shown wearing a shirt that he was dragging." The people asked, "How did you interpret it? (What is its interpretation) O Allâh's Apostle?" He (the Prophet ) replied, "It is the Religion."
One day Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) told Sahâbah al Kirâm that he was shown people in the dream , some people were wearing shirts of which some were reaching up to the breasts only while others were even shorter than that. Umar bin Al-Khattab was shown wearing a shirt that he was dragging." The people asked, "How did you interpret it? (What is its interpretation) O Allâh's Apostle?" He (the Prophet ) replied, "It is the Religion." Shirt is an external thing which gives protection to the body from heat and cold and also adds beauty to it. Once one wears the shirt his private parts get covered and he becomes care free about it. Similarly Deen protects one from the wrath of Allâh and Jahannam and also adds grace to his exterior and beauty to his morals and interior. One who sticks to Deen, develops trust in Allâh and becomes care free from all worries. It is for these reasons that shirt has been interpreted as Deen in this Hadith. One's Deen is directly proportional to his deeds, as the people are different in deeds, so are they different in their Deen. As Imâm Bukhari has been trying to prove the same point in these chapters , that is why he has got this Hadith here in this chapter titled "Preference of Believers as per their (good) Deeds.
Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) was shown people having different grades of Deen and out of these the shirt of Hadhrat Umar (RA) was the longest meaning thereby that his Deen was the most perfect and the strongest.
Hadhrat Abu Bakr Siddique (RA) is the most perfect and strongest in Deen in the whole Ummah
There is consensus in the Ummah that Hadhrat Abu Bakr Siddique (RA) is the most perfect and the strongest in Deen in the Ummah. From this Hadith it seems that Hadhrat Umar is the most perfect and the strongest in Deen in the Ummah. Ulema have given different answers to this query. Some say that the people who were presented to Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) in the dream did not include Hadhrat Abu baker (RA), so no question of the preference of Hadhrat Umar (RA) over Hadhrat Abu Bakr (RA). Others say that the preference of Hadhrat Abu Bakr over every one in the Ummah is so well established by the Qur'an and Ahâdith of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) that cannot be modified on the basis of this one Hadith which has many options of interpretation. Some say that Hadhrat Umar (RA) was having the longest shirt means that there would be maximum victories to the Umah during his regime. Hadhrat Abu Bakr's period of Khilâfat was around two years and four months while that of Hadhrat Umar (RA) was over ten years. Some others say that preference of Hadhrat Umar (RA) in any one part will not effect the over all preference of Hadhrat Abu Bakr Siddique (RA) .
باب - الحياء من الإيمان
Chapter (Bâb) 16: Modesty is (a part) of Imân
Hadith No. 23
حدّثنا ( عبدُ اللَّهِ بنُ يُوسُف ) َ قال أخبرنا ( مَالِكُ بنُ أَنَس ) ٍ عن ( ابنِ شِهاب ) ٍ عن ( سالِمِ بنِ عبدِ اللَّه ) ِ عَنْ أبِيهِ أنّ رسولَ اللَّهِ مَرَّ عَلى رَجُلٍ مِنَ الأنْصَارِ وَهُوَ يَعِظُ أخاهُ في الْحيَاء فقالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ دَعْهُ فَإن الْحَياءَ مِنَ الإيمان
Narrated by Abdullah bin Umar
Once Allâh's Apostle passed by an Ansâri (man) who was admonishing to his brother regarding Hayâ'. On that Allâh's Apostle said, "Leave him as Hayâ' is a part of faith." (See Hadith No. 8)
Purpose of Tarjamatul Bâb
In the previous chapter Imâm Bukhari mentioned the preference of believers as per their deeds and in this chapter he is mentioning an important deed that is "Hayâ" which is the part of Imân which can be the cause of the preference of Imân.
One day Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) passed by two persons when one of them was advising the other to leave Hayâ as it was causing lot of harm, in his opinion, to him. When one is overwhelmed with the sense of Modesty he goes in many losses as he feels shy in asking the people for his rights. It was in this connection that this man was advising his friend to leave such Modesty which results in so much worldly losses. In another narration it is mentioned that this man was cursing him for such Modesty. When Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) heard this, he (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) told that man to leave alone his friend with Modesty as it is a part of Imân. Modesty is a great moral treasure one can have. All prophets have taught the importance of Modesty.
باب - فإن تَابُوا وَأقَامُوا الصَّلاَةَ وآتُوا الزَّكاةَ فَخَلُّوا سَبِيلَهُمْ
Chapter (Bâb) 17: But if they repent and establish regular prayers and practice regular charity then open the way for them.
Hadith No. 24
حدّثنا ( عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ مُحمَّدٍ ألمسندي ) ُّ قال حدّثنا ( أبُو رَوْحٍ الْحَرَمِيُّ بْنُ عُمَارة ) َ قال حدّثنا ( شُعْبَة ) ُ عَنْ ( وَاقِدِ بْنِ مُحمَّد ) ٍ قال سَمِعْتُ أبِي يُحَدِّثُ عَنِ ( ابْنِ عمَر ) َ أنَّ رسول الله قال أُمِرْتُ أنْ أُقَاتِلَ النَّاسَ حَتَّى يَشْهَدُوا أنْ لاَ إلَهَ إلاَّ الله وأنّ مُحمَّدا رسُول اللَّهِ وَيُقِيمُوا الصَّلاَةَ وَيُؤْتُوا الزَّكاةَ فَإذَا فَعَلُوا ذَلِكَ عَصَمُوا مِنِّي دِمَاءَهُمْ وأمْوالَهُمْ إلاَّ بِحَقِّ الإسْلاَمِ وَحِسَابُهُمْ عَلَى اللَّهِ
Narrated by Ibn Umar
Allâh's Apostle said: "I have been ordered (by Allâh) to fight against the people until they testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allâh and that Muhammad is Allâh's Apostle, and offer the prayers perfectly and give the obligatory charity, so if they perform that, then they save their lives and property from me except for Islâmic laws and then their reckoning (accounts) will be done by Allâh."
Purpose of Tarjamatul Bâb
It again shows that the deeds are part of Imân as the repentance from Shirk, establishment of regular prayers and practicing of regular charity have been made the basis for opening the way for non believers.
Relation between Aayat and the Hadith as per Ibn Hajar
In the Aayat three things i.e., repentance from Shirk, establishment of regular prayers and practicing of regular charity (Zakâh) are mentioned and made the basis for giving peace and protection, similarly, in the Hadith same three things are mentioned as the basis for giving the protection to their lives and property. In the Aayat "but if they repent" means returning from Kufr towards Tawheed. In the Hadith the words of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) until they testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allâh and that Muhammad is Allâh's Apostle" , means the same. The word Takhliyah in the Aayat and the word Ismat used in the Hadith have same relation.
In this Hadith Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) says that he has been ordered by Allâh Ta'âlâ to fight with the people till they testify Oneness of Allâh and his prophethood , in other words he has been told to continue his mission of purifying the world from the shirk and infidelity. These two things i.e., shirk and infidelity, are the root causes of disturbance, oppression and injustice in the world. Believing in the Creator and following His instructions as given by His Messenger is the only way of establishing peace and justice in the world. The mission of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) was to establish peace , harmony and justice in the world , so , he was told to fight till end with the forces who were responsible for creating injustice , tyranny and oppression in the world. Once all people will believe in the Oneness of Allâh and accept Him as the Supreme authority and follow His Messenger (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam), every one will have peace and their lives and properties will remain safe.
Except for Islâmic laws:In an Islâmic state it is the duty of the state to protect the lives and properties of its citizens. Every one will get the protection except those who break the law e.g., somebody commits murder or theft, he will be punished accordingly.
"And then their reckoning (accounts) will be done by Allâh."
In an Islâmic state one who testifies Shahâdah and whose deeds are like those of Muslims i.e., he establishes Salâh and pays Zakâh etc. , he will be treated as a Muslim. Whether the faith (Imân) has penetrated his heart or not is not the job of the state. Nobody can pierce through his heart to see into it as to whether there is real Imân in it or not. This thing is left to Allâh and will be decided in the Aakhirah only.
Tawbah and testifying Shahadah
In the Aayat quoted in the Bâb the word ‘Tâbo' is used and in the Hadith the testifying of Shahâdah is used. Repentance or Tawbah here means to repent on the period spent in Jâhiliyah or ignorance and Shirk, develop hatred for previous ideology and then to testify that that none has the right to be worshipped but Allâh and that Muhammad is Allâh's Apostle. Testifying the Shahâdah itself includes Tawbah and there is no need to say Tawbah separately with Shahâdah as per the majority of Ulema whereas Imâm Ahmad is of the opinion that before the Shahâdah, Tawbah is also important.
A Hadith says:
ألإسلام يهدم ما كان قبله
Islâm abolishes whatever (sins have been committed) before Islâm.
So, any one embracing Islâm sincerely will get his earlier sins waved off automatically.
Establishment of Salâh
Establishment of Salâh is a very important pillar of Islâm. Now the question arises as to what would be fate of one who does not establish Salâh. As per Imâm Ahmad bin Hambal one who leaves Salâh purposefully is Kâfir and deserves death sentence. As per Imâm Mâlik and Imâm Shâfa'ee he is not a Kâfir but they also advocate for him death penalty. Imâm Abu Haniefah does not favour death sentence but recommends his imprisonment till he either makes Tawbah or dies.
بابُ - مَنْ قَالَ إنّ الإيمَانَ هُوَ العَمَلُ لقَوْلِ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى وَتِلْكَ الْجَنَّةُ الَّتِي أُورِثْتُمُوهَا بِمَا كُنْتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ
Chapter (Bâb) 18: Whoever says that faith (Imân) is action (good deeds) referring to the saying of Allâh, "And this is a paradise which you have been made to inherit because of your deeds which you did (in the worldly life) (43:72). A number of scholars explained the verse: "So by you Lord, we shall certainly call all of them to account for what they did." (15:92-93). By saying: "For the life of this let all strive who wish to strive." (37:61)
Purpose of Tarjamatul Bâb
Allâmah Kashmiri says that here Imâm Bukhari wants to say that Imân is not the name of mere knowledge because a devil can also possess it. Instead Imân is the name of the deed of Qalb or heart i.e., Imân means to accept by the heart. Hadhrat Gangohi is also holds same opinion whereas the majority of Ulema believe that it is the name of the deeds of heart as well as the deeds of the other parts of the body.
وَتِلْكَ الْجَنَّةُ الَّتِي أُورِثْتُمُوهَا بِمَا كُنْتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ
"And this is paradise which you have been made to inherit because of your deeds which you used to do (in the life) (43:72)
In this verse it is said that you have been given Jannah because of your deeds, we know that one gets Jannah because of Imân and here it is said that you get it because of deeds, so, it means that deeds are also included in Imân بما كنتم تعملون here means بما كنتم تؤمنون .
What does inheritance of Jannah mean?
How can you inherit Jannah?, Ulema have given different explanations about it.
Inherited thing remains for ever, as the Jannah will also remain for ever, so, the word 'inherit' is used.
One has complete freedom in using the inherited property, similarly one can use the Jannah the way one likes.
Here Allâh is the giver of Jannah, as the inherited property is never taken back, so Jannah will never be taken back by Allâh after having given it to some one.
Shah Abdul Qâdir says that here the word inheritance is used because it is inherited by Mumin in relation to Aadam as he was the first who was given Jannah.
و قال عدّة من أهل العلم في قوله تعالى فهو ربك لنسئلنهم أجمعين عما كانوا يعملون عن قول لا إله إلا الله
A number of scholars explained the verse (statement of Allâh) -"So by your Lord,We shall certainly call all of them to account for all what they used to do".(15:92), by the saying ," there is no God but Allâh".
In this verse Allâh Ta'âlâ says that He will take them to account for all their deeds. The preceding verses of this verse are as follows:
لَا تَمُدَّنَّ عَيْنَيْكَ إِلَى مَا مَتَّعْنَا بِهِ أَزْوَاجًا مِنْهُمْ وَلَا تَحْزَنْ عَلَيْهِمْ وَاخْفِضْ جَنَاحَكَ لِلْمُؤْمِنِـينَ () وَقُلْ إِنِّي أَنَا النَّذِيرُ الْمُبِـينُ () كَمَا أَنْزَلْنَا عَلَى الْمُقْتَسِمِـينَ () الَّذِينَ جَعَلُوا الْقُرْآنَ عِضِينَ () فَوَرَبِّكَ لَنَسْأَلَنَّهُمْ أَجْمَعِينَ () عَمَّا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ ()
"Strain not thine eyes (wistfully) at what We have bestowed on certain classes of them nor grieve over them: but lower thy wing (in gentleness) to the Believers. And say: "I am indeed he that warneth openly and without ambiguity" (Of just such wrath) as We sent down on those who divided (Scripture into arbitrary parts) (So also on such) as have made the Qur'an into shreds (as they please). Therefore by thy Lord We will of a surety call them to account For all their deeds.(15:88-93)
In these preceding verses the mention is made of non believers and then it is said that these people (non believers) will be taken to account. We know that non believers are not accountable for their deeds but are accountable for Imân, so, here deeds mean Imân. That is why Imâm Bukhari says that a number of scholars have explained this verse by لا إله إلا الله "There is no god but Allâh".
لِمِثْلِ هَذَا فَلْيَعْمَلِ الْعَامِلُونَ
" For the like of this let all strive who wish to strive" (37:61)
From this Aayat also Imâm Bukhari wants to prove the same thing.
Hadith No. 25
حدّثنا ( أحْمَدُ بْنُ يُونُسَ وَمُوسَى بْنُ إسمَاعِيل ) َ قالاَ حدّثنا ( إبْراهِيمُ بْنُ سَعْد ) ٍ قال حدّثنا ( ابْنُ شِهَاب ) ٍ عَنْ ( سَعِيد بْنِ المُسيَّب ) ِ عَنْ ( أبِي هُرَيْرة ) َ أن رسولَ اللَّهِ سُئِلَ أيُّ العَمَلِ أفْضَلُ فقالَ إيمانٌ باللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ قِيلَ ثُمَّ مَاذا قالَ الجِهَادُ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ قِيل ثُمَّ مَاذَا قال حَجٌّ مَبْرُورٌ
Narrated by Hadhrat Abu Hurairah (R)
Allâh's Apostle (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) was asked, "What is the best deed?" He replied, "To believe in Allâh and His Apostle (Muhammad). The questioner then asked, "What is the next (in goodness)? He replied, "To participate in Jihâd (religious fighting) in Allâh's Cause." The questioner again asked, "What is the next (in goodness)?" He replied, "To perform Hajj (Pilgrimage to Mecca) 'Mabroor, (which is accepted by Allâh and is performed with the intention of seeking Allâh's pleasure only and not to show off and without committing a sin and in accordance with the traditions of the Prophet)."
Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) was asked same question (what is the best deed?), he (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) replied it differently at different times depending upon the circumstances in which the question was asked and secondly keeping in view the particular state of the questioner. Here Faith in Allâh and His Messenger (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) was told to be best deed followed by Jihâd and Haj. Here Jihâd has been mentioned before Hajj when we know that Hajj is obligatory and Jihâd is Fardh-i-Kifâyah. Various explanations have been given by the Ulema. Some say that this Hadith was told before Hajj became Fardh. Others say that it is possible that it is of that period when Jihâd was more important for Sahâbah.
What is Haj-i-Mabroor
It is said that Haj-i-Mabroor means that Hajj during which no sin is done and which is performed with absolute sincerity.
باب - إذَا لَمْ يَكُنِ الإسْلاَمُ عَلَى الْحَقِيقَةِ وكانَ عَلَى الإستسْلاَمِ أو الْخَوْفِ مِنَ الْقَتْلِ لِقَوْلِهِ تَعَالىَ قَالَتِ الاَعْرَابُ آمَنَّا قُلْ لَمْ تُؤْمِنُوا وَلَكِنْ قُولُوا أسْلَمْنَا فَاذَا كانَ عَلَى الْحَقِيقَةِ فَهْوَ عَلَى قَوْلِهِ جَلَّ ذِكرُهُ إنّ الدِّينَ عِنْدَ اللهِ الإسْلاَمُ وَمَنْ يَبْتَغ غَيْرَ الاِسْلاَمِ دِيِناً فَلَنْ يُقْبَلَ مِنْهُ
CHAPTER (Bâb) 19: If one does not accept Islâm truly but does so because of fear and yield of being killed, according to reality of your Imân. The saying of Allâh:"The desert Arabs say, ‘We Believe'. Say ‘Ye have no Faith; but you (only) say, we have submitted". Then if Islâm is based on truth, that is as per the saying of Allâh, "The religion before Allâh is Islâm".
Purpose of Tarjamatul Bâb
Allâmah Anwar Shah Kashmiri says that here Imâm Bukhari wants to convey as to which Islâm is beneficial and of help in the Aakhirah and which is not. That Islâm or submission which is not based on truth but is because of worldly factors like greed or fear will not be of any help in the Aakhirah. That is why some desert Arabs of Banu Asad tribe, who came to Madinah with their cattle and children due to to drought conditions in their place, were told that the faith had not entered their hearts and that they had only submitted to Islâm because of worldly factors Such Imân is not reliable. The Qur'an confirmed their Islâm but negated their Imân because their Imân was not true Imân, otherwise as per Imâm Bukhari Imân and Islâm are synonymous. The true Islâm is depicted in the second verse quoted above.
Once Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) asked one of his companions, Hadhrat Hârisah (RA) "In which state you woke up in the morning, O Hârisah? Hadhrat Hârisah (RA) replied, "I woke up as true Muslim Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) said, "O! Hârisah, think what you are saying as there is reality for everything and what is the reality of your Imân. Hadhrat Hârisah (R) replied, "My Nafs turned away from the world, I remained awake during nights (for worship), I remained thirsty during days and my state became such as if am seeing the Throne (Arsh) of my Lord very clearly, as if I am seeing the people of Jannah visiting it and if I am seeing the people of Jahannam crying." Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) said, "(Indeed) you (O Hârisah) have known (Imân), now stick to it.
Hadith No. 26
حدّثنا ( أبُو اليَمَان ) ِ قالَ أخْبَرَنَا ( شُعَيْب ) ٌ عَنِ ( الزُّهْرِي ) ِّ قالَ أخبْرَنِي ( عَامِرُ بْنُ سَعْدِ بْنِ أبى وَقَّاص ) ٍ عَنْ ( سَعْد ) ٍ رضى الله عنه أن رسول الله أعْطَى رَهْطاً وَسَعْدٌ جَالِسٌ فَتَرَكَ رسولُ الله رَجُلاً هُوَ أعْجَبُهُمْ إلَيّ فَقُلْتُ يَا رَسُولَ الله مَالَكَ عَنْ فُلاَنٍ فَوَاللّهِ إنّي لأَرَاِهُ مُؤْمِنَا فقالَ أوْ مُسْلِماً فَسَكَتُّ قَلِيلاً ثُم غَلَبَنِى مَا أعْلَمُ مِنْهُ فَعُدْتُ لِمَقَالَتِي فَقُلْتُ مَالكَ عَنْ فُلاَنٍ فَوَاللّهِ إنِي لأَرَاهُ مُؤْمِناً فقالَ أوْ مُسلِماً ثُمَّ غَلَبَنِي مَا أعْلَمُ مِنْهُ فَعُدْت لِمَقَالَتِي فَقُلْتُ مَالكَ عَنْ فُلاَنٍ فَوَاللَّهِ إنِي لأَرَاهُ مُؤْمِناً فقالَ أوْ مُسلِماً ثُمَّ غَلَبَنِي مَا أعْلَمُ مِنْهُ فَعُدْت لِمَقَالَتِي وَعَادَ رسولُ اللّهِ ثمَّ قالَ يَا سَعْدُ إنى لأُعْطِي الرَّجُلَ وَغَيْرُهُ أحَبُّ إليَّ مِنْهُ خَشيَةَ أنْ يَكُبَّهُ اللَّهُ فِي النَّار
Narrated by Hadhrat Sa'd (RA)
Allâh's Apostle (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) distributed (Zakâh) amongst (a group of) people while I was sitting there but Allâh's Apostle left a man whom I thought the best of the lot. I asked, "O Allâh's Apostle! Why have you left that person? By Allâh I regard him as a faithful believer." The Prophet commented: "Or merely a Muslim." I remained quiet for a while, but could not help repeating my question because of what I knew about him. And then asked Allâh's Apostle, "Why have you left so and so? By Allâh! He is a faithful believer." The Prophet again said, "Or merely a Muslim." And I could not help repeating my question because of what I knew about him. Then the Prophet said, "O Sa'd! I give to a person while another is dearer to me, for fear that he might be thrown on his face in the Fire by Allâh."
Narrator-Hadhrat Sa'd bin Abi Waqqas (RA)
Hadhrat Sa'd (RA) is a famous Sahâbi, he is from those ten distinguished Sahâbah who were given the glad tidings of Jannah in this world only. He was 5th or 7th person to embrace Islâm at the age of 17 years and was first to throw arrow in the way of Allâh. He was amongst those six persons whom Hadhrat Umar (RA) nominated for selecting the next Khalifah. He was the conqueror of Iran and the Governor of Iraq. There are about two hundred and seventy Ahâdith narrated on his authority. He died in 55 Hijrah and was buried in Madinah at Baquee, may Allâh be pleased with him.
Hadhrat Sa'd (RA) says that one day he was sitting with Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) when he was distributing Zakâh and he did not give one person whom he (Sa'd) was thinking the best faithful believer amongst that lot. This thing surprised Sa'd and he could not resist himself, so, he got up and asked Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) as to why he left that particular person whom he thought as the best believer from the lot. Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) replied, "or merely a Muslim". Hadhrat Sa'd (RA) repeated the same question three times and every time got the same answer from Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam). By doing so Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) wanted to tell Hadhrat Sa'd (RA) that the faith or Imân is a hidden thing, one cannot make a categorical statement about it regarding anybody, only Allâh knows it and that in this world you can testify somebody's Islâm (external submission) and not Imân (internal submission). The name of this Sahâbi about whom Hadhrat Sa'd (RA) was asking was Hadhrat Ju'ail (RA)".
Does this Hadith negate the Imân of Hadhrat Ju'ail (R)?
No, this Hadith does not negate the Imân of Hadhrat Ju'ail (R), but teaches Hadhrat sa'd (R) that he should not testify about somebody's faith with certainty as that is known only to Allâh. Secondly there is a lesson in it that if someone has to give a word of advice to someone, he should do that secretly and not publicly. Then the Prophet said: "O Sa'd! I give to a person while another is dearer to me, for fear that he might be thrown on his face in the Fire by Allâh."
The other lesson from this Hadith is that at times one can give extra concessions to those whom he thinks to be of weaker faith and give them preference over those having stronger faith.
باب - إفْشاءُ السَّلاَمِ مِنَ الإسْلاَمِ وقالَ عَمَّارٌ ثَلاثٌ مَنْ جَمَعَهُنَّ فَقَدْ جَمَعَ الإيمَانَ الإنْصَافُ مِنْ نَفْسِكَ وَبَذْلُ السَّلاَمِ للْعالَمِ والإنْفَاقُ مِنَ الإِقْتَارِ
Chapter (Bâb) 20: To make the Islâmic greeting (Salâm) popular is from Islâm and Ammar (RA) said: One who attained three qualities, attained Imân, viz.,
Justice from core of the heart.
To greet Salâm to everyone (known or unknown).
To spend (in the way of Allâh) even during poverty.
Narrator: Hadhrat Ammar bin Yathir (RA)
Hadhrat Yathir (RA), the father of Ammâr (RA) migrated from Yamen to Makkah, there he married Sumayyah (RA) the slave girl of Abu Hudhaifa (RA). Ammâr (RA) was born to Sumayyah (RA) 57 years before Hijrah. All the three that is Yathir (RA) Sumayyah and Ammâr (RA) embraced Islâm quite early in Makkah and were teased too much by the Makkan infidels. Sumayyah (RA) was the first to get martyred in the way of Allâh. Abu Jahal threw an arrow which hit her private parts and she got martyred. Ammâr (RA) participated in both Hijrahs (migrations) viz., to Habsha and Madinah and also participated in all the Gazwâs (battles) including Uhud and Badr. He was the first to construct Masjid in Islâm. When they were being teased in Makkah, Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) told them:
صبرا يا آل ياسر فان موعدكم الجنة
"Have patience, O family of Yathir as your promised place is Jannah."
1. Justice from the core of the heart
Here Hadhrat Ammâr (RA) said that there are three things whosoever attains them will attain the Imân. First is to do the justice from the core of heart. Many times one does not want to do justice but circumstances force him to do so, e.g., fear of getting defamed i.e., "if I don't do the justice, I will get defamed." But the justice should be from the core of heart and not because of hypocrisy. Some Ulema say that "ألإنصاف من نفسك " means that one should do justice to his Nafs that is to himself.
2. Salâm for everyone (known or unknown)
To make Salâm very popular, that is to wish everyone whether you know him or not.
3. To spend (in the name of Allâh) even during poverty
To spend when you have plenty is not that meritorious as to spend when you yourself are needy.
Hadith No. 27
حدّثنا ( قُتَيْبَة ) ُ قالَ حدّثنا ( اللَّيْث ) ُ عَنْ ( يَزيدَ بْنِ أبي حَبِيب ) ٍ عَنْ ( أبِي الْخَيْر ) ِ عَنْ ( عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ابْنِ عَمْرٍو ) أنّ رَجُلاً سَأَلَ رَسولَ الله أيُّ الإسْلاَمِ خَيْرٌ قال تُطْعِمُ الطّعَامَ وَتَقْرَأُ السَّلاَمَ عَلَى مَنْ عَرَفْتَ ومَنْ لَمْ تَعْرِفْ
Narrated by Abdullah bin Amr
A person asked Allâh's Apostle. "What (sort of) deeds or (what qualities of) Islâm are good?" He replied, "To feed (the poor) and greet those whom you know and those whom you don't know."
The contents of this Hadith have already been discussed.
باب - كُفْرَانِ العَشِيرِ وَكُفْرٍ بعدَ كُفْرٍ
Chapter (Bâb) 21: To be ungrateful to one's husband. And disbelief is of different grades. A narration from Abu Sa'id Al-Khudri (RA) (in this regard) on the authority of the Prophet (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam).
Literal meaning of Kufr
Literally ‘Kufr' means to conceal. A farmer is called ‘Kâfir' because he conceals the seed in the ground and the night is also called Kâfir because it also conceals the things. A disbeliever is called Kâfir because he conceals the truth and the blessings of Allâh and attributes them to someone other than Allâh.
Applications of the word Kufr
In real sense the word Kufr is applied to one who denies Allâh, His Messenger or the Shari'ah brought by Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam). This type of Kufr drags one out of the fold of Islâm.
Disbelief is of different grades
There are many grades of kufr below this grade of real Kufr which are not so grave but are still labelled as Kufr. These grades of Kufr do not take one out of the fold of Islâm. Here in this chapter the ungratefulness of women towards their husbands is labelled as Kufr but by saying كُفْرٍ بعدَ كُفْرٍ Imâm Bukhari wants to convey that this type of Kufr is of another type, that is, it will not take one out of the fold of Islâm. Secondly Imâm Bukhari also wants to convey that since Imân is of different grades, Kufr is also of different grades.
"There is a narration from Abu Sa'id Al-Khudri (RA) (in this regard) on the authority of the Prophet (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam)"
In this Imâm Bukhari points towards a Hadith which he has extracted in Kitab-ul-Haidh (Chapter on Menses), on the authority of Hadhrat Sa'id al Khudri ",in which Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) says:
"O group of women, give charity as I have been shown majority of you in Hellfire, they asked as to why was it so? He replied, "because you often use to curse (say La'nat) and are usually ungrateful to your husbands."
Hadith No. 28
حدّثنا ( عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ مَسْلَمَة ) َ عَنْ ( مَالِك ) ٍ عَنْ ( زَيدِ بْنِ أسْلَم) عَنْ ( عَطَاءِ بْنِ يَسَار ) ٍ عَنِ ( ابْنِ عَبَّاس ) ٍ قال قال النبي أُرِيتُ النَّارَ فَإذَا أكْثَرُ أهْلِهَا النَّسَاءُ يَكْفُرْنَ قِيلَ أيَكْفُرْنَ باللَّهِ قالَ يَكْفُرَن العَشِيرَ ويَكْفُرْنَ الإحْسَانَ لَوْ أحْسَنْتَ إلَى إحْدَاهُنَّ الدَّهرَ ثُمَّ رَأتْ مِنْكَ شَيْئا قَالَتْ مَا رَأيْتُ مِنْكَ خَيْرا قَطُّ
Narrated by Hadhrat ibn Abbas (RA)
The Prophet said: "I was shown the Hell-fire and that the majority of its dwellers were women who were ungrateful." It was asked, "Do they disbelieve in Allâh?" (or are they ungrateful to Allâh?) He replied, "They are ungrateful to their husbands and are ungrateful for the favors and the good (charitable deeds) done to them. If you have always been good (benevolent) to one of them and then she sees something in you (not of her liking), she will say, 'I have never received any good from you."
The Prophet said: "I was shown the Hell-fire and that the majority of its dwellers were women who were ungrateful."
Asheer means husband, Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) was shown the hellfire and he saw that the majority of dwellers therein were women. This was shown to him either during Me'raj or Kasoof or in a dream. It is mostly thought that it was during Kasoof as Imâm Bukhari has repeated this narration under the chapter on Kasoof as well. Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) was asked as to what was the cause of women being in majority in hellfire, he said that they were more ungrateful and this ungratefulness was not towards Allâh that would take them out of the fold of Islâm, but this ungratefulness was towards their husbands. In another Hadith Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) said that had it been permissible for him to ask the people to prostrate before anyone other than Allâh, he would have asked the women to prostrate before their husbands. This is why ungratefulness towards the husbands has been labelled as Kufr, though, of lower grade. To impress upon that point Imân Bukhari mentioned in the Bâb the statement كُفْرٍ بعدَ كُفْرٍ.
This Hadith says that Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) saw women in majority than men in Hellfire whereas other Ahâdith say that in Jannah one man will have at least two women as wives, that will mean that there will be more women in Jannah. (Other Hadith says that there will be seventy two wives to each man in Jannah, it is said that the seventy of them will be from among the Hoors of Jannah). Ulema have given different reasons for this ,i.e., will there be more women in Jannah or Hellfire? some say that initially there will be more women in Hellfire and after the Magfirat and Shifa'at they will be taken to Jannah and ultimately there will be more women in Jannah (Allâh knows the best).
باب - المَعَاصِي مِنْ أمْرِ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ وَلاَ يُكَفَّرُ صَاحِبُهَا بِارْتِكابِهَا إلاَّ بِالشِّرْكِ لِقَوْلِ النبيِّ إنَّكَ امْرُؤٌ فِيكَ جاهِليَّةٌ وقَوْلِ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى إنّ الله لاَ يَغْفِرُ أن يُشْرَكَ بِهِ وَيَغْفِرُ ما دُونَ ذَلِكَ لِمَنْ يَشَاءُ
Chapter (Bâb) 22: Sins are from ignorance. A sinner is not a disbeliever unless he attains a partner with Allâh, as per the saying of Prophet, "You still have some characteristics of ignorance" and Allâh says, "Verily Allâh forgives not that rivals should set up with Him in worship, but He forgives that whom He pleases", (4:48). If two parties among the believers fall into a quarrel make ye peace between them." (49:9) and he labelled them as believers.
What is Ignorance
There are different opinions about it, viz.,
1. It is the period from the birthday of Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) to the day he announced his Prophethood.
2. The period before prophethood.
3. The period of Sahâbah before embracing Islâm.
Here Imâm Bukhari wants to convey that though the sins are the signs of the period of ignorance yet these are not taking one out of the fold of Islâm. It is only Shirk that makes one Kâfir. Nobody can doubt the faith of Abu Dharr, yet Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) told him that he had some characteristic of the period of ignorance when he called his servant with bad names. Similarly Allâh Ta'âlâ called those people as believers who fought with each other, otherwise, as per Hadith, we know that the fighting of Muslims with each other is Kufr. Allâh Ta'âlâ says:
وَإِنْ طَائِفَتَانِ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ اقْتَتَلُوا فَأَصْلِحُوا بَيْنَهُمَا فَإِنْ بَغَتْ إِحْدَاهُمَا عَلَى الأخْرَى فَقَاتِلُوا الَّتِي تَبْغِي حَتَّى تَفِيءَ إِلَى أَمْرِ اللهِ فَإِنْ فَاءَتْ فَأَصْلِحُوا بَيْنَهُمَا بِالْعَدْلِ وَأَقْسِطُوا إِنَّ اللهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُقْسِطِينَ
"If two parties among the Believers fall into a quarrel make ye peace between them:" (49:9)
Allâh Ta'âlâ says:
إِنَّ اللهَ لا يَغْفِرُ أَنْ يُشْرَكَ بِهِ وَيَغْفِرُ مَا دُونَ ذَلِكَ لِمَنْ يَشَاءُ وَمَنْ يُشْرِكْ بِاللهِ فَقَدِ افْتَرَى إِثْمًا عَظِيمًا
"Allâh forgiveth not that partners should be set up with him; but He forgiveth anything else to whom He pleaseth; to set up partners with Allâh is to devise a sin most heinous indeed." (4:48)
Allâh Ta'âlâ does not forgive shirk, will He forgive Kufr?
In this verse Allâh Ta'âlâ says that He will forgive anything to whom he pleases, but not Shirk. Does that mean that He will forgive Kufr as well? The learned scholars say that "Dhoona" in this verse means "Adhnâ", meaning thereby that Allâh Ta'âlâ will forgive all sins which are less than Shirk and not Shirk. Kufr is higher in degree than Shirk, so, it does not come in the things which are less in gravity than Shirk.
Hadith No. 29
حدّثنا ( سُلَيْمَانُ بْنُ حَرْب ) ٍ قالَ حدّثنا ( شُعْبَة ) ُ عَنْ ( واصِلٍ الأحْدَب ) ِ عَنِ ( المَعْرُور ) ِ قال لَقِيتُ أبَا ذَرّ بالرَّبَذَةِ وَعَلَيْهِ حُلَّةٌ وَعَلى غُلاَمِهِ حُلَّةٌ فَسَأَلْتُهُ عَنْ ذَلِكَ فقالَ إني سَابَبْتُ رَجُلاً فَعَيَّرْتُهُ بأمِّهِ فَقالَ لِيَ النبيُّ يَا أبا ذَرٍّ أعَيَّرتَهُ بِأُمِّهِ إنْكَ امْرُؤٌ فِيكَ جَاهِلِيَّةٌ إخْوَانُكُمْ خَولُكُمْ جَعَلَهُمُ اللَّهُ تَحْتَ أيْدِيكُمْ فَمَنْ كانَ أخُوهُ تَحْتَ يَدِهِ فَلْيُطْعِمْهُ مِمَّا يأْكُلُ وَلْيُلْبِسْهُ مِمَّا يَلْبَس وَلا تُكِلِّفُوهمْ مَا يَغْلِبُهُمْ فَإنّ كَلَّفْتُمُوهُمْ فَأَعِينُوهُمْ
Narrated by Al Marur
At Ar-Rabâdha I met Abu Dhar who was wearing a cloak, and his slave, too, was wearing a similar one. I asked about the reason for it. He replied, "I abused a person by calling his mother with bad names." The Prophet said to me, 'O Abu Dhar! Did you abuse him by calling his mother with bad names? You still have some characteristics of ignorance. Your slaves are your brothers and Allâh has put them under your command. So whoever has a brother under his command should feed him of what he eats and dress him of what he wears. Do not ask them (slaves) to do things beyond their capacity (power) and if you do so, then help them".
Narrator-Abu Dhar Gifâri (RA)
Abu Dhar Gifâri (RA) is a famous Sahâbi, who was fourth or fifth person to embrace Islâm in Makkah and later on went back to his home place and performed Dâwah work there and finally migrated to Madinah. Since his migration was late so he could not participate in the battles of Badr, Uhud and Khandaq. There are many Ahâdith that speak for his praise. Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) said,
1."I have been ordered, by Allâh, to love four persons among my companions." He was asked as to who were those four?, he said, "Ali , Abu Dhar, Salman and Al-Miqdad."
2."May Allâh bless Abu Dhar, he walks alone, will die alone and will be resurrected alone."
In last days of his life he went to a place called Ar-Rabâdha, he advised his wife that she should keep his body outside the house after giving him Ghusl and Kafan when he breathes his last and tell whosoever passes first by that side, that it is the body of Abu Dhar. His wife did the same and first to pass by that side was Ibn Mas'ood along with some of his companions. His wife told Ibn Mas'ood that it was the body of Abu Dhar. On hearing this tears rolled down the eyes of Ibn Mas'ood and he said:
صدق رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يرحم الله أبا ذر يمشي وحده و يموت وحده و يبعث وحده
"May Allâh bless Abu Dhar, he walks alone, will die alone and will be resurrected alone."
Then Ibn Mas'ood offered his Janâzah and buried him, may Allâh be pleased with him and raise his rank.
Ar-Rabâdah is a place three Manzils from Madinah. Al Marur says that once he met Abu Dhar at Ar-Rabâdah and saw him and his servant wearing the same type of cloak. Al Marur asked him the reason for the same. Abu Dhar narrated to him an incident that one day he called his one of the servants with bad names regarding his mother, calling him, O son of a black women. Probably this man was Hadhrat Bilal and some say that he was Hadhrat Ammâr bin Yathir. Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) heard it and he called Abu Dhar and asked him if he had called his servant with bad names regarding his mother. Abu Dhar admitted of having done so, Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) said to Abu Dhar that he was a person still possessing some characteristics of the days of ignorance (Jâhiliyah). Calling some one with bad names is, of course a sign of ignorance. Islâm insists on development of good morals of high standard for its believers, that is why Rasulullah (Sallallâhu Alaihi Wasallam) admonished Abu Dhar on this issue. This Hadith clearly indicates that even those people who are having very high degree of faith still need someone as their teacher who can pin point their weaknesses, since one cannot know his own weak points. We know that Abu Dhar was having very high degree of faith but still was not able to know his weak point of having some sort of wrath and anger existing in his inner self.
Islâm and human equality
This is a great teaching of Islâm that teaches human equality. Islâm teaches that all human beings have descended from single parent, and hence are equal. No one gets preference over others on the basis of caste, colour or creed. Superiority in Islâm is based only on the degree of faith and piety. Rich or poor, master or slave, ruler or ruled are all temporary phases of this world which have been created by Allâh just to test the man as to how he behaves in a particular given position. So, man should always think that whatever status, rich or poor, ruler or ruled, has been given to him is just to test him. So, a rich man has no reason to feel proud and a poor man no reason to feel dejected. If someone has been made master to other, he should respect his slave from his heart thinking that this slave may be more dearer to Allâh than him and can have higher rank in the Hereafter.
So whoever has a brother under his command should feed him with what he eats himself and dress him as himself. Do not ask them (slaves) to do things beyond their capacity (power) and if you do so, then help them.
This is unparallel teaching of Islâm, pious Muslims have always upheld this teaching. Abu Dhar put this teaching of his teacher into practice till his death, as is evident from this Hadith that he and his slave was wearing the same type of cloak. Ulema say that it is Mustahab in terms of Shari'ah to provide with same thing to your servant what you like for yourself.